Spanish Mission Style
Some features of a Spanish Mission style church - rectangular  floor plan, asynmetrical facades, low pitched roof with
parapet or hipped form, heavy tiled roofs with little or no overhanging eaves, arcaded entrances or porches, canvas
awnings. Part of the purpose of this style was to produce "awe"  with the local indigenous population. The "Laws of the
Indies" in particular by King Philip II in 1573 clarified the guidelines for the design and development of new communities.
The laws were based on Vitruvius'
Ten Books of Architecture and Alberti's treatises on architecture.The plan was
centered on a Plaza Mayor where streets were built outward from a rectillnear grid.

St. Augustine Cathedral (Although built in the 2nd Spanish period, it follows the rules laid out in the town plan.)

Colonial (First Spanish Period) 1565-1763
The primary focus of this period is on buildings constructed between 1702 and 1763.

Buildings are constructed directly on the street. The site is enclosed by a wall or fence. Entry is first thorough a gate
opening into a loggia, porch or courtyard and then into the building.

Buildings are generally small - one, one and one-half and two stories- but with proportionally large door and window
openings. Ground floor street windows may have projecting rejas while all other windows have bannisters or lattice. All
windows have interior shutters. Street doors were usually fifty inches wide, either single or double leaf.

Loggias and porches, both one and two story, are used for shade and are generally on the south or west facades.
These open into courtyards, sideyards and patios. Stairs are usually located at the end of the loggia.

The first Spanish Period is the only period during which flat roofs were used. Flat roofs are enclosed by a parapet with
rain spouts (canales) projecting through the wall plane.

Both gable and hip roofs are used, with gable roofs more common. Roofs are of Medieval design and are distinctively
steep, usually pitched greater than 45 degrees. Roofs are covered with split wood shakes or shingles, boards and
thatch. Overhangs are small or non-existent.

Roofed balconies, often with corbelled beams, overhang the street. Balconies extend across most of the face of the
building and protect windows from sun and rain.

The most common site plan was for the building to be placed directly on the north property line, providing a sideyard or
courtyard to the south. The most common building plan was a simple rectangle. Proportions vary due to initial design
constraints and to additions, but the most common width to length ratio is about 1/1.5, with a range of 1/1.0 to 1/2.5.
Dimensions are measured in varas, not in feet.

Most construction is of masonry. Some wood frame buildings wer eused, as were masonry end walls with wood frame
surfaces were covered with plaster or stucco.

Gonzalez Alvarez House                                   Arrivas House                              Pena Peck (Burt House)

Don Pedro Hurrouytiner                                   Pardes Segui MacMillan              Casa Avero

DeMesa-Sanchez House                                   Llambas                                      Gonzalez-Jones House -56 Marine
                    
Rodriquez Avero Sanchez House

Colonial (British Period) 1764-1783
The primary influence of this period is the introduction of street doors directly entering the building, glazed windows and
exterior shutters, and chimneys. Many existing buildings were modified and expanded, quite often by adding a wood
frame second story to a masonry one story building.

Window openings were reduced in size and proportion due to glazing. Single panes of glass were no larger than eight
inches by ten inches. The most common width to height ratio for double hung sash and may be six over six, nine over
six, nine over nine, or twelve over twelve. A typical arrangement is nine over six on the ground floor with six over six on
upper floors.

Door openings were reduced due to the introduction of the British six-panel door. The average door width was thirty-
three inches, although thirty-six, forty-two and forty-four inch doors were used. The average door height was seven feet
and seldom less than six feet ten inches.

Loggias and porches, and the adjacent yards, were retained. Stairs were often moved to the inside or incorporated
within the expanded building.

Both gable and hip roofs are used. Roofs are usually pitched at about 45 degrees. Dormers were used to provide light
and air to the upper half story. Roofs are covered with split wood shakes or shingles.

Street balconies were often retained or added.

British Period buildings are often larger than First Spanish Period structures. The most common plan remained a simple
rectangle. Proportions again averaged 1/1.5 with a range of 1/1.0 to 1/2.6. Dimensions vary from the Spanish model
due to measurement in feet instead of varas.

Most buildings are of masonry but the use of wood frame construction greatly increased during this period. The most
common examples are wood frame second stories and wood frame extensions of existing masonry buildings.

Kings Bakery



Colonial (Second Spanish Period) 1784-1821
Many features introduced by the British were retained during this period. These features include chimneys, glazed
windows and exterior shutters. both courtyard doors and direct access doors were common.

Windows and doors followed the British model. Loggias, porches, street balconies and sideyards were retained.

Roofs, both gable and hip, vaired between 45 degrees and 30 degrees, with lower pitches reflecting 19th Century
design. Roofs were covered with split wood shakes or shingles. Some larger buildings used slate or barrel tile.

Building proportions remained about the same. Wing additions are sometimes used. Dimensions are again measured in
varas.

Most buildings were of masonry construction, with wood much less common.

Canova-deMedicis House (Dow House)   Ximenez-Fatio House                                      Paredes Dodge House

Prince Morat House                                 Gaspar Papy                                                   Joaneda House 57 Treasury

Segui-Smith House                                  Don Pedro Fornell                                           Canova House

Father Miguel O'Reilly                             Garcia Dummit                                                 Rovira-Hernandez 71 Marine

Solana House                                          Sanchez House 7 Bridge                                Tovar House

Sanchez Burt - 105 St. George                Antonio Triay House 42 Spanish  

Territorial 1821-1861
The buildings of the American territorial period retained many of the design elements of Spanish Colonial architecture.
This includes the use of masonry walls finished with stucco, wood shingle roofs, loggias, balconies galleries and
enclosed patios.

Features introduced by American immigrants include lower roof pitches, four over four windows, and 19th Century
designs for wood trim and metal hardware. Direct entry street doors became the norm and the use of wood frame upper
stories became common.

Greek Revival and Gothic Revival styles were introduced. The main features of the Greek Revival style are symmetrical
facades, the use of columns or pilasters to support an entablature, low pitched gable roofs and "Grecian temple" front
porticos. Buildings are commonly painted white with dark greek trim.

The main features of the Gothic Revival style are the use of tall, narrow windows and doors, often with a pointed arch,
steeply pitched gable roofs and an emphasis on all vertical elements of the facade.

Haas House                                                      Markland

Fontain House 33 Aviles                                   59 Marine St.

Yahalla 115 Bridge Street

Carpenter Gothic 1830 - 1860
The Carpenter Gothic style combined the steeply pitched gables and diagonal panned windows of Gothic architecture
with the intricate decorative woodwork of the early Victorian Era. The term "Carpenter" refers both to the extensive use
of sawn wood ornamentation and because buildings were usually designed by craftsmen, not architects.

This sawn ornamentation covers the barge boards and eaves of the roof, as well as porch and balcony railings. The
intricate detailing was emphasized by multi-hued paint schemes. Tall windows with diamond shaped panes reflected
English Tudor architecture. Windows often had shutters.

Stanbury Cottage (The Gingerbread House)

The Foster House (9 Martin Luther King)

Steamboat Gothic (aka Riverboat Gothic)
Steamboat Gothic architecture started on the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys as houses that were designed to
resemble steamboats on those rivers. The style displays multi-level wooden porches. The style has elaborate carved
woodwork. A steamboat Gothic home will always be at least two storeis tall, with elaborate wraparound porches with the
porches often enclosed in lacy gingerbread and complex scrollwork and pillared galleries.

(see picture - Gruene Texas)

Gothic Revival
Carpenter Gothic houses and small churches became common in North America and other places in the late 19th
century.[18] These structures adapted Gothic elements such as pointed arches, steep gables, and towers to traditional
American light-frame construction. The invention of the scroll saw and mass-produced wood moldings allowed a few of
these structures to mimic the florid fenestration of the High Gothic. But, in most cases, Carpenter Gothic buildings were
relatively unadorned, retaining only the basic elements of pointed-arch windows and steep gables

Trinity Episcopal                                                St. Josephs Convent

Vernacular 1821 - 1930
The term "vernacular" refers to the common building style of any particular time period and is a reflection of local
materials and regional culture. Based upon the method of construction, this style may be referred to as "Frame" or
"Masonry."

Early St. Augustine vernacular architecture utilized such cultural features as extensive porches, galleries and blaconies,
and enclosed yards. Vernacular buildings are often simplified versions of prevailing architectural styles, adapted to the
local climate. During the mid to late Victorian Era, buildiers using architectural style books created many vernacular
designs.

Vernacular buildings make up the bulk of St. Augustine's historic building resources. These buildings dominate the
streetscape to establish the scale of the neighborhood and to create a sense of place. Vernacular building techniques
record the change over time of construction technology and materials. Due to their numbers and diversity, these
buildings illustrate not only major architectural styles but minor design influences, such as Chippendale, Arts and Crafts,
Pennsylvania Dutch, Minorcan and Cracker. Vernacular buildings represent the history, influence and culture of the
middle and lower classes.

Villa Rosa                                                                      Harris-Dunham - 6 Ballard

Cerveau House                                                             Fountain Villa - 110 Bridge St.

Vista del Rio  24 Anderson Street                                 John G. Leeds - 18 Carrera     

La Pasada Hotel 52 Carrera                                          Reynolds House - 86 Cedar

Dicker Cottage 87 Cedar                                               Alcazar Cottage - 32 Granada

Bueno Esperanza - 55 Keith                                           V. J. White Mansion - 60 Lighthouse Ave.

Alfred W. Sanchez - 101 Marine                                     Goode House - 103 Marine

Philander-Hulett House - 18 Mulvey Street                     Vedder House - 63 Orange

Harry Masters House - 46 Osceola Street                       Mary Andrews House - 48 Osceola Street

Manucy House - 6 Sanchez Avenue                                Abbott House 22 Water St

Second Empire 1865-1880 (from Wikipedia)
In the United States, the Second Empire style usually combined a rectangular tower, or similar element, with a steep, but
short, mansard roof; the roof being the most noteworthy link to the style's French roots. This tower element could be of
equal height as the highest floor, or could exceed the height of the rest of the structure by a story or two. The mansard
roof crest was often topped with an iron trim, sometimes referred to as "cresting". In some cases, lightning rods were
integrated into the cresting design, making the feature useful beyond its decorative features. Although still intact in
some examples, often this original cresting has deteriorated and been removed. The exterior style could be expressed
in either wood, brick or stone. More elaborate examples frequently featured paired columns as well as sculpted details
around the doors, windows and dormers. The purpose of the ornamentation was to make the structure appear imposing,
grand and expensive.

Floor plans for Second Empire residences could either be symmetrical, with the tower (or tower-like element) in the
center, or asymmetrical, with the tower or tower-like element to one side. The McAlesters [see references] divided the
style into five subtypes:

Simple mansard roof – about 20%
Centered wing or gable (with bays jutting out at either end)
Asymmetrical – about 20%
Central tower (incorporating a clock) – about 30%
Town house

Barbour House (8 Arenta St.)                                       St. Francis Inn - 279 St. George                                          

The Octagon Style
The Octagon Mode is a distinctive and remarkable yet relatively rare architectural style, which enjoyed a brief period of
popularity primarily in the years from 1850 until 1870. Previously, Adam- or Federal-style buildings had occasionally
featured octagonal wings or projections, so the octagon form was not a new creation. Several prominent designers
(including Thomas Jefferson) built octagon buildings in the United States in the late 18th and early 19th century, but the
octagon house form seldom appeared until it was reintroduced to the public through the writings of Orson Squire Fowler
in 1848.

Identifiable Features

1.  Octagonal shaped building
2.  Low pitched hipped roof
3.  Wide overhanging eaves
4.  Brackets at the cornice
5.  Partial or fully encircling porch
6.  Octagonal cupola on some versions

62 Lighthouse Avenue

Italianate House Style 1840-1885 (About.com Architecture)
Of all the homes built during the Victorian era, the romantic Italianate style became the most popular. With their nearly-
flat roofs, wide eaves, and massive brackets, these homes suggested the romantic villas of Renaissance Italy. The
Italianate style is also known as Tuscan, Lombard, or bracketed.

14 St. Francis Street                                                    20 Rohde

Neo Classical (About.com Architecture)
Neoclassical, or "new" classical, architecture describes buildings that are inspired by the classical architecture of ancient
Greece and Rome. If you look closely at a Neoclassical building you may see echoes of the Parthenon in Athens or the
Pantheon in Rome.

Neoclassical buildings have many (although not necessarily all) of these features:

Symmetrical shape
Tall columns that rise the full height of the building
Triangular pediment
Domed roof

Anita Yates Building - 47 Orange Street

Queen Anne 1880 - 1900
The Queen Anne style represents the epitome of High Victorian design and detailing in St. Augustine. These large
buildings are usually low and one-half to three stories, with irregular massing and floor plans. Architectural features of
this style include the use of towers, turrets, porches (often multi-level), roof finials and bay windows.

Architectural details often include extensive decorative woodwork as well as ornamental brick work on chimneys. A major
design element is the use of combinations of siding materials-horizontal clapboard, vertical board, novelty siding and
decorative shingles. Different types of siding are used to delineate different stories, emphasize turrets and towers, and
decorate gable ends.                                                                    

Multi-hued paint schemes are used to pick out architectural elements. Often each story and the gable ends are painted
in different hues, so that the horizontal bands contrast with vertical trim elements. A few roofs were decorated with
different color shingles.

11 Bridge St.                                                                            Dunn House - 93 King

Ponce de Leon Cottage (Thompson Hall) 9 Carrera               
 Dismukes House - 80 Water  

Bruer House 61 Orange Street                                                Col. Upham Cottage - 268 St. George

Old County Jail - 167 San Marco                                              28 Saragossa

32 Saragossa                                                                            23 Water

Moorish Revival 1880 - 1890                   
The Moorish Revival style reflects the extravagance of the Gilded Age and the Victorian's love of romanticized
architecture. These grandiose buildings were constructed of poured coquina concrete, coquina concrete block or brick.

Major features are flat roofs surrounded by parapets heavily decorated with intricate crenulations, varied window and
door placement and sizes, and the use of wood and metal balconies. Other elements include pavilion towers,
ornamental tile work, bright papint colors and both round and pointed arches.

Villa Zoryada                                                  Casa Monica

Warden Castle                                               Horace Walker House (Castillo Sebastian) - 33 Old Mission

Villa Flora                                                      Brooks Villa (Oriel House)  -174 Avenida Menendez

Lyon Building                                                 15 Shennandoah

Flagler Era Vernacular 1880 - 1890
Both the Spanish Renaissance Revival and Venetian Renaissance Revival styles were brought to St. Augustine
by Henry Flagler. These styles are the epitome of the grandiose elegance and extravagance of the Gilded Age.

Both styles make extensive use of poured coquina concrete walls, terra cotta tile roofs, complex building massing,
monumental entries, towers, turrets, vertical windows and doors, galleries, loggias and balconies, and intricate detailing.

Spanish Renaissance Revival buildings use rounded arches and red terra cotta tiles. Venetian Renaissance Revival
buildings use both rounded and Ogee arches as well as white and gold terra cotta tiles.

Seavey's House (Union Generals)                    Ponce de Leon Hotel                              Grace United Methodist

Alcazar Hotel                                                     Memorial Presbyterian

Colonial Revival 1890 - 1930
The Colonial Revival style reflected both a cultural fascination with the 18th Century and a return to classical themes in
architecture. Many Federal style elements are used, such as dentil mouldings, fanlight windowsor pediments over doors,
and sidelights at the main entry.

Roofs were often sawn wood shingles. Windows may be six over six or six over one, with functional shutters. Exteriors
were usually clapboard or weatherboard.

The common paint scheme was white with dark green shutters and trim. Other common colors were ivory, light grey, light
blue and yellow.

In St. Augustine, Colonial Revival buildings sometimes had Victorian porches or porticos with round wooden columns.

Carr Cottage (Drysdale House) 46 Avenida Menendez                       Abbott House - 14 Joiner

Amidown Cottage - 115 Cordova                                                         Bronson Cottage - 252 St. George

Bungalow 1900 - 1930
The Bungalow style represents the reaction of the Arts and Crafts movement against the complexities of High Victorian
design. This relatively simple and finely detailed style features one to one-half story buildings with low pitched gable
roofs, often with dormers.

Front porches extend across the width of the building. In St. Augustine, foundation piers and porch bases are often
made of coquina concrete, while palm trunks are used as porch posts. Another common porch post is an elongated
pyramid rising from a square base and toped with a small square capital.

Siding materials include clapboard or weatherboard, novelty siding and wood shingles. Windows are double hung sash,
often the 4/1 windows unique to the Bungalow style.

George L. Estes House - 287 St. George                                  Frederick Henderich House - 290 St. George

Mediterranean Revival Post-1920
The Mediterranean Revival style developed as the architectural theme of the Florida "Land Boom" of the 1920s. This
style gave Florida a tropical, foreign cachet that fascinated northern visitors.

The major features of this style are masonry finished with stucco, terra cotta tile roofs and cornices, and oramental iron
work for windows grills and balconets.

Windows are usually tall casement or double hung sash. Fanlights were sometimes used over doors. An arch motif was
common on windows, doors and porch colonnades.

Hamblen Club (Grandfather of Mediterranean Revival)             Atlantic Bank Building - 24-28 Cathedral Place

Dunne Apartment -101 Arpieka                                                 Tiffany House - 22 Martin Luther King

Civic Center                                                                                Villalula - 51 Cordova

Fullerwood School 10 Hildreth                                                     Stickney House - 282 St. George

Hastings High School


St. Augustine Colonial Revival Post-1930
The St. Augustine Colonial Revival style combines elements of traditional Spanish colonial buildings with Mediterranean
Revival architecture. Buildings are not usually constructed directly on the street but some have walled yards.

Roofs are terra cotta tile or split wood shingles. Windows are six over six but are sometimes covered with iron grill work.
Balconies may be wood or ornamental iron. Walls may be masonry finished with stucco, poured coquina concrete or
coquina block.

An arch motif is common on columns and breezeway entries. True loggias are not used but galleries are common.



                                       Architectural Terms
(Words taken from The Houses of St. Augustine by Al Manucy marked AM, words taken from Florida's Colonial
Architectural Heritage
by Elsbeth K. Gordon marked as EG, Sixteen-Century St. Augustine by Al Manucy as
AM2)

                                                              A    
Alacena -
Pantry, storeroom (A.M.)

Alfarda - Stud, light wooden beam. (A.M.)

Arch - A structure of wedge-shaped masonry blocks or formed concrete over an opening, constructed so as to hold
together when supported only from the sides. (
Arco)

Arroba - Spanish weight of 25 pounds; a measure containing about 4 gallons.(AM2)

Ashlar - Masonry utilizing cut, squared stone. (not usually associated with St. Augustine work A.M.)

Ashlar Joint Stucco - Grooves cut into stucco to create the appearance of ashlar stone, commonly in a running bond
pattern.

Atrium - An open court within a building

Azotea, acutea, sotea. - Flat roof, generally a tabby slab supported by solid board sheathing. Also a flat roof made of
two or more layers of brick-like tile supported upon spaced wooden slats. Mortar is laid between each layer of tile. Each
tile is about 3/4 x 5 x 101/4. (A. M.)

Azulejos - Glazed tile (A. M.)


                                                             
B
Baluster
- A post or upright supporting a handrail.

Bargeboard - The finish board (often decorative) covering the projecting and sloping portion of a gable roof.

Bark - outside sappy planks or boards sawn from the sides of timber. (EG)

Barro, baro - clay, mud, daub. (A. M.)

Batten - A narrow strip of wood nailed over the vertical joints of boards to form board-and-batten siding.

Bay - principal part of a structure (AM2)

Bead - A narrow half-round molding. (A. M.)

Belvedere - rooftop pavilion, gazebo, latern (lanthorn), or mirador; glazed or open roof superstructure larger than a
cupola (EG)

Bracket - A support element under eaves, balconies and other overhangs.

Butt - A joint which fastens boards end to end or edge to edge; also, a type of hinge allowing the door edge to butt into
the jamb.

Buttress - A vertical masonry or concrete support which projects from a wall.

                                                              
C
Caballeriza, cavalleriza -
stable (A.M.)

Cafio - spout, pipe, gutter, ditch, conduit; specifically a clay tile spout. (A.M.)

Cal. - Lime; lime mortar, plaster; tabby. In Florida lime was calcined from shells, usually oyster shells from Indian
middens. (A.M.)

Canal - Gutter (A.M.)

Canales - water pipes, gutters (EG)

Cantilever - A projecting beam or structural member anchored at only one end, such as on a balcony.

Chamfer - Beveled edge formed by removing the sharp corner of a material.

Clapboard - In England originally a size of board, especially of split oak, used for making staves and wainscoting. In the
American colonies it came to mean a narrow board, often thicker at one edge than the other, used for weatherboarding
frame buildings. for roofing and fences. Usually clapboards were laid horizontally and overlapped. (A.M.)

Column - A vertical supporting member, generally consisting of a base, shaft and capital.

Coping - The cap or top course of a wall.

Corbel - A stepped coursing bracket to support weight above; also, projection of masonry from the face of a wall.

Coquina - Spanish for shellsone: a conglomerate composed of fragments of marine shells. (A. M.)

Coquina chippings - The detritus that results from cutting coquina into blocks. The s0palls were used as aggregate in
some types of masonry, or as fillers and spacers. The finer chippings, being quite "sharp," compacted efficiently and
were sometimes used as pavement, as a foundation for and an aggregate in tabby floor or pavement, as as "dry"
patching for pavement (A. M.)

Coquina shell or "gravel." - The unconsolidated mixture of sand and shell found between the strata of coquina. It was
sometimes used in making tabby. (A. M.)

Corrido de arcos - Row of arches (A. M.)

Cresting - A light, repeated ornament, incised or perforated, carried along the top of a wall, parapet or roof.

Cricket - A small gable-like roof structure used to divert water and debris from the intercetion at sloping roofs and
chimneys; also called a
saddle.

Cupola - A spherical roof; a dome.

                                                             
D
Dormer
- A projection of a room built out from a sloping roof; "wall dormer" is in the same place as the wall; a "roof
dormer" rises from the slope of the roof.

                                                            
 E
Eave
- The lower edge or portion of roof that overhangs the walls.

Entablature - A beam or board carried by columns.

                                                            
 F
Facade
- The face or front elevation of a building.

Fascia - Outside horizontal face or board on the edge of a roof or cornice.

Fenestration - The arrangement and sizing of doors and windows in a building.

Finial - an ornament at the top of a spike, gable or pinnacle.

Flashing - Sheet-metal work used to prevent water from seeping into a building.

Frieze - A trim member or board below the cornice that is attached to the wall; also, any sculptured or ornamental band
in a building.

                                                           
 G
Gable -
The triangular shaped end wall of a gable-roof building.

Gallery - A covered area projecting from and extending along the face of a building and enclosed by posts or columns;
also, a long porch.

Gavel End - gable end.(EG)

                                                           
 H
Hearth
- The floor of a fireplace. (AM2)

Hip Roof - A roof with four pitched sides, usually uniform in slope.

                                                            
J
Jamb
- Vertical member of a door or window opening.

Joist - Any of the parallel timbers that support a floor or ceiling. (AM2)

                                                            
K
King Post -
Vertical beam in the roof frame, between the horizontal tie beam and the roof ridge. (AM2)

Knee Wall - A low wall in an upper story resulting from one and one-half story construction.

                                                         
   L
Ladrillo -
Brick; perhaps also the tile used in construction of flat roofs. (A. M.)

Lattice - Grill work made by crossing or interfacing small wooden strips.

Link - Measurement in a surveyor's chain equal to 7.92 inches.

Lintel - A horizontal support over a window, door or gate opening.

Loggia - A covered area open on at least one side but enclosed within or a part of a building.

Louver - slatted grill work that allows ventilation while providing privacy and protection from rain or light.

                                                            
 M
Merlon -
The solid part of a battlement or parapet, between two openings.

Moulding - A continous narrow surface that is either carved into or applied to a surface.

Mullion - A small bar separating the glass lights within the sash of a multi-pane window.

Mutin - A vertical structural support member between a series of windows.

                                                             
 P
Patio -
A court, as of a house, especially an inner court open to the sky' courtyard; yard. (A. M.)

Parapet - A low wall or railing at the edge of a roof and extending above roof level.

Pediment - A wide low-pitched gable above a portico or door.

Pergola - An open, structural framework over an outdoor area, usually covered with vines to form an arbor.

Pie - One foot, Spanish measure (11 inches U. S.) (AM2)

Pier - A masonry support to support the floor framing

Pilaster - A rectangular pier attached to a wall to strengthen the wall; also, a decorative column attached to a wall.

Pitch - The slope of a roof, usually expressed as a ratio of vertical rise to horizontal distance.

Plate - A horizontal girder that supports vertical timbers. (AM2)

Plazza - porch; gallery. (A. M.)

Porch - A covered structure at an entrance to the building.

Postigo: peep-window, shutter (EG)

Principal - second floor (A.M.)

                                                      
         O
Oortico
- A major porch, with a pedimented roof supported by columns; also, a roofed space enclosed by columns.

                                                               
Q
Quoins
- Large squared stones (either or rusticated) or brick masonry set in the corners of buildings.

                                                              
 R
Rafter
- An inclined structural roof member sloping from the ridge to the eaves, establishing the pitch, the ends, or
"tails", of which may be left exposed or covered.

Rejas - A projecting wooden frame on First Spanish Period street windows which may consist of spindles of bannisters-
and-lattice.

Roof plate - Horizontal timber atop the house walls, upon which the rafters are seated (AM2)

Ripio - term used in 1764 to designate masonry other than squared stonework, principally tabby. (A. M.)

Rise - the vertical height of a roof or stairs.

                                                             
  S
Sash
- An individual frame into which glass is set; also, the movable part of a double hung window.

Scantling - framing timbers cut to any desired size. (EG)

Shake - A hand-split wood shingle.

Shutter Tieback - Hardware used to secure shutters against a wall in an open position. also called "shutter dogs".

Sill - The horizontial member below a window or door; also, the lowest structural member that rests on the foundation.

Soffit - The underside of an overhang shuch as the eave, a second floor, or stairs.

Solana - Open porch or gallery for "taking the sun"; an elevated porch.

Stile - A vertical framing member of a panel door.

Stucco - A type of plaster work used for surfacing walls.

                                                               
T
Tabby -
A concrete composed of approximately equal parts of lime, sand, and shell aggregate. It was used for walls,
floors, roofs, walks, fences and benches, being poured into the formed space and compacted. The size of the
aggregate was varied to suit the work; course oyster shell was used for rough work such as walls, relatively fine coquina
shell to produce the dense mortar needed for finished floors.

Tapia - rammed earth (also pise); mud wall, as in adobe. (EG)

Title- A thin slab of baked clay, used in overlapping rows to cover a roof. (A. M.)

Turret - A small, slender tower, usually set at the corner of a building and often circular in shape.

                                                             
  V
Vara
- Measurement of length. In St. Augustine, the vara Castellana (32.9") was used; hence for practical purposes, 33"
or about 1 yard. (A. M.)
                         
                                                               
W
Wainscot -
A lining or facing of wood on interior walls. (A. M.)

Water Table - A horizontal band visually separting the building from the foundation; also, a horizontal member
extending from a wall to throw rain water away from the surface.
         
Weatherboard - A board used to form the outside protective covering of a wall, especially a board shaped to shed
water by forming lapped joints with the boards above and below; a clapboard. (A. M.)

Whitewash - Lime in water for painting wood or masonry surfaces to improve weather resistance and appearance.

                                                                Z
Zapata -
A short horizontal member on the head of a vertical post. (AM2)

Zocalo - A horizontal band of dark paint at the base of a wall.                                       
Architectural Styles and
Periods and Architectural Terms
from
Architectural Guidelines
for Historic Preservation
City of Saint Augustine, Florida
(with additions of other styles)
Oldest House
Gomez - Alvarez House
Picture by Francis Benjamin Johnson 1937

Bottom floor 1st Period Spanish
Second floor British
February 1965
GENERAL VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST -
Don Raimundo Arrivas House
44 South George Street, Saint Augustine, St. Johns County, FL
Photographer Jack E. Boucher

1st floor 1st Spanish
2nd Floor British or later American addition
Canova de Medicis House
48 Bridge Street

Picture by Francis Benjamin Johnson 1937

2nd Spanish
Markland
King St

Territorial
Greek Revival
Gingerbread House
212 St. George St.
Carpenter Gothic Style

Photographer:
Thomas T. Waterman 1937
Ponce de Leon

Front view and entrance, [Ponce de Leon Hotel, St. Augustine]
Photographer:
William Henry Jackson, 1843-1942
Related Names:  Detroit Publishing Co. , publisher

Spanish Renaissance
Memorial Presbyterian

Flagler Memmorial [i.e. Memorial Presbyterian] Church, St. Augustine
Photographer:
William Henry Jackson, 1843-1942
Related Names: Detroit Publishing Co. , publisher
Date Created/Published: [between 1880 and 1897]

Venetian Renaissance
[Villa Zorayda, The]
Photographer:
William Henry Jackson, 1843-1942,  
Related Names: Detroit Publishing Co. , publisher
Date Created/Published: [between 1880 and 1897]

Moorish Revival
Hamblen Club
VFW Post

Francis Benjamin Johnson

Mediterranean Revival
Brooks Villa
174 Avenue Menendez
2005
Moorish Revival

Photographer: Gil Wilson
Frame Vernacular
Note the Palm Tree porch posts - A good St. Augustine Innovation

Photographer: Gil Wilson
St. Augustine from 1920s to WWII
St. Augustine from WWII to
1960
Casa Amarylla
St. Augustine Rebounds
Sequi-Smith House
Villa Flora
Public Market
Arrivas House
Villa Rosa
Canova deMedicis House
Ximenez-Fatio House
Villa Zorayda
Gonzalez Alvarez House
Seavy House (Union General)
Warden Castle
Garcia Dummitt House
Don Pedro Horruytiner House
Huertas-Canova House
(Prince Morat House)
DeMesa-Sanchez House
Father Miguel O'Reilly House
Bishops House
Archtectural Styles and Periods
Gaspar Papy
Don Pedro Fornells
Reconstruction Properties
Sanchez-Burt House
Tovar House
Pardes Segui MacMillan House
Don Manuel Solana House
Structure List
Dr. Bronson Main Page
   
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Barbour House
8 Arenta St
Picture from Google Earth
Second Empire