Return to Freedmen's Aid Societies
History of the Baltimore Association
for the Moral and Educational Improvement
of the Colored People
Beginnings from The Freedmen's Record (Feb, 1865)
We give below the admirable address to the people of Maryland, put forth by the Baltimore Association for the
Improvement of the Colored People; and, while so doing, we cannot refrain from expressing a wish, that portion of the
people of the old Free States, which is still unconvinced that it has any duty in the matter of raising the condition of the
black population of our country, may soon come to the same humane and enlightened views : —

Baltimore, Dec. 15, 1865.

Sir,— Your attention is called to the Association formed in this city for the Moral and Educational Improvement of the
Colored People.

The Address of the Association to the public is hereto appended; and your aid and countenance in furtherance of its
charitable object is earnestly requested.

Any amount of money you feel able to contribute may be handed to any member of the Finance Committee, and will
aid the Association in their effort to educate the colored people.

Rooms Of The Baltimore Association For The Moral And Educational improvement Of The Colored People, Room No.
8, Bible House.

Fellow-Citizens, — Since the adoption of the new constitution, very grave issues are submitted for your consideration.

That instrument, by its benevolent provisions, has added to the eighty thousand free colored people of our State
eighty-seven thousand others, recently slaves.

These two classes constitute the greater portion of the labor of the State.

They are likely to remain among us, for they are attached to their homes; and no Government has ever consented to
the violent removal of one fourth of its population.

For the most part, they are ignorant. The habits of their former industry have not been such as to teach them ideas of
thrift, carefulness, or providence. Thrown upon their own resources, though their labor is in great demand, they
cannot be expected to know the necessity of industry, or how to seek at home permanent occupation and employment.

We are forced to think it the duty of every citizen of Maryland to seek to make this population most useful to the State,
as it is the bounden duty of Christian men to seek their moral improvement.

There are but two courses to be pursued. The one is, to leave these persons in the ignorance and moral destitution in
which many of them now, unhappily, are; and the other, to endeavor by education to improve their habits, instruct
them in their industry, make diligent the idle, reform the vicious, and stimulate the good, that they may rise in the scale
of being, and be better fitted for the varied duties they are called on to perform.

The first course may, at first, seem the least troublesome and expensive; but ignorance is the mother of vice, and
unless these people are taught their duties to the State, and their more important duty to God, and are not suffered to
remain in the helpless state in which slavery has left them, the necessity for almshouses, jails, and penitentiaries, will
teach the folly of such economy.

Educated labor produces more than uneducated labor. It is, therefore, the interest of the State that all labor should be
instructed.

One of the hopes of the friends of emancipation was, that measure would induce immigration into the State, raise the
price of our lands, give demand for our labor in erecting mills and dwellings, and in manufacturing the various utensils
necessary for the increased population of Maryland. But it cannot be expected that any number of the class of
emigrants we desire, will leave their homes to dwell in Maryland, if they know they are to be surrounded by an illiterate,
ignorant population, whose ignorance and vice are to be daily increased by withholding all instruction in the arts of
labor, all educational improvement, and every teaching of morality which would lead them to higher ideas of duty to
God and to their neighbor.

To pursue this plan would deprive the State, in the first place, of the productive labor of one hundred and sixty
thousand people, and would prevent desirable emigration into her borders, and oppress those of us now residents of
the State, with additional taxation to furnish what the expense of education would have entirely prevented.

Perhaps those of the colored people whose circumstances require daily toil for the support of their families can
receive but little direct benefit, at their time of life, from any effort now put forth; but we believe the influence of the
education of their children will be felt upon the home and the household, that family respect will increase, that thrift
and cleanliness will be promoted, and the same beneficent effects which education produces upon other populations
will be felt among the colored people.

They have been taxed for a long while for public schools, but have been allowed none. Their present condition, when
we consider what has been denied them, and how little means or opportunity they have had for self-improvement, i» a
standing rebuke to those who think they are incapable of moral or mental culture.

They long for opportunity to show how readily they become a people no longer degraded by, but useful to, the State.

The Baltimore Association for the Moral and Educational Improvement of the Colored People, intends to do what it can
to give them such opportunity. Its members will give their best efforts to this charitable purpose.

Those of our fellow-citizens who feel any interest in a people upon whom their vote has thrust the responsibilities of
life, and those in whom Christianity prompts kindness and duty toward these people, are invited to give us their
support in such manner as they may think the most useful; that we, if necessary, by private benevolence may do what
long since ought to have been done, and we hope soon will be done, by the State; i.e., provide means for the moral
and educational improvement of one-fourth of our population.

We annex a list of the officers of the Association: President, Evans Rogers; Vice-Presidents, Archibald Stirling,
Thomas Kelso, William J. Albert, Francis T. King, John W. Randolph; Recording Secretary, George A. Pope;
Corresponding Secretary, Joseph M. Gushing; Treasurer, Jesse Tyson.

Board of Managers: Rev. F. Israel, Rev. Win. Bruce, Rev. F. L. Brauns, Rev. T. Stork, D.D., Rev. J. F. W. Ware, Hon.
H. L. Bond, Dr. C. C. Cox, Dr. R. W. Pease, Dr. J. C. Thomas, Galloway Cheston, William J. Albert, William Kennedy,
Hazlett McKim, G. T. Hopkins, Daniel Holliday, Ashur Clarke, James Carey, Alexander M. Carter, Richard M. Janney,
Henry Stockbridge, William Daniel, James Carey Coale, A. Stirling, jr., John A. Needles, John T. Graham, E. Stabler,
jun., George B. Cole, Alexander T. Johnson, W. K. Carson, John S. Oilman.

Finance Committee: William J. Albert, Archibald Stirling, sen., F. T. King, John W. Randolph, James Carey, Wash. K.
Carson, William Daniel, Edward Stabler, jun., Alexander T. Johnson, George B. Cole.

Letter from the Hon. Hugh L, Bond. (The Pennsylvania Freedmen, Vol 1, Number 1 - Feb 1865)
Baltimore, Jan. 28, 1865 My Dear Sir,—I desire to say a word to you on i subject which engages my attention, though I
do it with some hesitation, from fear I shall do harm

I would not for a moment restrain the abundant flow of kindly charity toward our colored people which does so much
credit to the people of the Northern States, and which our acquaintance with jour Association haa brought us so
happily to feel.

The great cause, however, of immediate emancipation is in danger from indiscreet friends, and no dread of local
distress should cause us to hesitate to point out that danger,

If immediate, uncompensated abolition of slavery, as brought about ruin, distress, nakedness, destitution and
starvation, among the blacks of Maryland, every man of common sense in Kentucky, Tennessee and other Southern
States, will be furnished with an unanswerable argument, why they should not follow car example; and yet one would
think from reading the papers at the North, and friendly papers, too, that such is the case. It is not true, however; the
immediate freedom of ighty-seveu thousand slaves in this State, has prolaced no increase of pauperism or crime,
which is by my criterion by which you can judge

In the largo slaveholding counties there was an exchange of masters. Husbands joined their wives on neighboring
farms, and wives their husbands and children, and for a while there was a temporary uncertainty about agricultural
labor; but the inexorable law of supply and demand very soon regulated the 1'rec colored population as it does the
white laboring "'asses. There was a good deal of brutality among some slaveholders in sporadic cases ; men and
women were iil-treated and some of their churches burned: but the authorities speedily checked what public
indignation would certainly have terminated in a little while, and the occurrences could in no wise be j attributed to the
emancipation of the slaves,—but rather tg the depravity of the population suffering the effects of slavery.

There must be nearly fifty thousand colored people in Baltimore, constituting one-fifth of the population.

There are in the Almshouse of the city, eight hundred and forty persons. One hundred and sixty-seven of them only
are colored people.

Whole number of persons 840
White Males 325
White Females 348
Block Males 63
Black Females 104

There are at present confined in the City Jail, for icing drunk and disorderly, disturbing the peace, md such
misdemeanors,

White Men 13

White Women 27

Colored Men 1

Colored Women.... 1

Total 42

And for vagrancy, i. e. under our law walking about without visible means of support, begging, &c.

White Men 7

White Women 2

Negroes 0

Total 9

It must bo recollected also that the white population enjoys the benefit of numerous side drains—if I may so term them.
Houses of Refuge, Orphans' Asylums, Rosines, &c., which relieves the Almshouse and Jail of some of their inmates,
which the colored people arc not blessed with.

The whole number of arrests made by the police of Baltimore for all causes during the week ending January 21st,
were:

White Males 67

White Females 12

Colored Males 7

Colored Females -2

Total 88

These statistics, furnished me by authority, show that as a class the freed people of Baltimore, at least, are not a bit
more vicious, idle, or destitute than the white people.

I fear there is a vicious system of raising money among many Associations, which leads to the exaggeration of our
difficulties, and endangers the good cause.

If Emancipation results in such effects where the negroes are so small a part of the population, the benevolence
of the North may well stand aghast at the prospect of 4,000,000 freedmen. The system I allude to includes the
practice of presenting strong pictures of physical distress for the sake of immediate effects, in the way of raising
funds. These pictures may be perfectly true in themselves, and yet make a false impression in regard to the whole,
which is injurious to the cause. Agents whose sole business is to collect money, and whose personal interests are
advanced, perhaps in proportion to their success, have a strong temptation to overstate, or, at least, to make one-
sided statements. They state facts, but they do this in such a way as not primarily to impart information, but to produce
a sensation. What may be true of a family is predicated of a class, and what is the ocsurrence of a neighborhood is
held up as the custom of the State; and instead of the constant, steady flow of charity, the product of the genuine
philanthropy of a people, we have that spasmodic gust, from sensation meetings and sentimental philanthropists,
which leaves every enterprise dependent upon them, however worthy, high and dry, the moment something more
exaggerated, sentimental or sensational, directs it in another channel.

Notwithstanding what I have said to you respecting the condition of free colored people, there are very many
instances of great hardship and want. Numbersof these poor people have toiled a lifetime and yet have nothing but
freedom. It was necessary, I suppose, in the great missionary Christianizing chemewhich Bishop Hopkins thinks
slavery was, to keep the subjects of it poor both in spirit and goods, that they might not be worldly-minded, but the
more readily be induced joyfully to go to Heaven.

I trust that what I have said on this subject will not be misunderstood. I am sure that you and your Association will not
misunderstand me, for I know your sentiments on this subject. You deprecate exaggeration as much as we do,—
whether it be the exaggeration of over-statement or the exaggeration—if I may use the phrase—>f under-stiteimnt.
You will join with us I am sure in imploring our friends to adopt in this matter the juste milieu.

We have an Association here which take care of such as come in a destitute condition to the city. It clothes them as
far as its means, which arc very limited, allow, so as to make them presentable as domestics, and then finds them
places of labor. We do not encourage any benevolence toward them which does not tend to make the colored man
feel his duty and capacity to support himself. Whatever can educate his mind and equip his body for self-care, is in
the right direction. Every thiDg else tends to lager houses, idleness, vice.

There are many sorrowful cries heard by the good,, ladies who have this institution in charge, and their willing hearts
and hands would do more if they could, t

would feel proud if any thing I could say to your Association, to which we are already so much indebted, would bring
them the comfort of a dollar, to rent a house to shelter the mothers for a night and the chilli ren for the day, while their
parents labor, or a garment to clothe the nude per.-ons of such as have enjoyed the benefits of the " divine institution."

One poor soul with six childreu, for whom we found a place, receives seven dollars per month and tendered the
Association six, for the board of her children.

i'ou know all about our educational prospects and schemes, and it is unnecessary to write about them. Give my
respects to our good friends, Messrs. Colwell and Hunt, and believe me, yours truly,

Hugh L. Bond

Letter from Baltimore Association For the Moral and Educational Improvement of the Colored People.
(
Pennsylvania Freedman Vol 1 #1, Feb 1865)

Baltimore, Jan. 24,1805. J. M. McKm, Esq., Cor. Sec. Pa. F. R. Asso.:

Dear Sir,—In accordance with an intimation previously given, I now write you of a great need felt in this city.

The idea of Freedom is not realized by many of those who were so lately slaves in the counties of this State, until they
have been able to come to Baltimore without hindrance. They seem to come here, many of them, without any notion of
what is to become of them; and whilst numbers have, through the agency of the Friends' Aid Society, found
employment, there are some who reach here with great difficulty, entirely strangers and helpless. Mothers with small
children, who are able and willing to work, but having no houses, and unable to leave their children when they have
secured a temporary shelter, cannot become house-servants— some of them not even to do a day's work. Some of
these represent themselves to be wives of soldiers receiving no money from their husbands. Their services are in
demand. What we want to enable them to support themselves, and, partially at least, their children, is a Home, where
upon arrival they could stay for a few days; but more especially where their children could be housed, clothed, fed,
and taken care of, whilst they could be away at work.

The number to be provided for is not now large. The ladies under whose observation this class has come, think that
with about $1200 per annum, a suitable house could be rented and supported with the aid they could give it in
clothing, food, &c. They propose to collect from the mothers such sums as they may be able to pay towards the
support of their children.

Our Association has not the means to do this— having already engaged in expenses for our schools to the amount of
probably 820,000, a sun our Finance Committee think far beyond what they will be able to raise here; and the Friends'
Association, acting in a different sphere, have the same difficulty. To both the field of labor seems far more extensive
than the probable means within reach here will allow us to work. Yet we think this Home must be established, and that
at once. The ladies appeal to us as individuals for advice and assistance. It is the urgency of the case,—bearing in
mind the interest wo know you have in the cause, and the sympathy and encouragement our Association has received
from the Pennsylvania Freedmen's Relief Association,—that prompts us to ask pecuniary aid for this project. The
object now being to afford immediate relief, and being partially experimental, we cannot submit a more definite plan.
Our Executive Committee will cheerfully undertake that the money shall be properly used, and will co-operate' with the
ladies into whose hands the enterprise will be committed.

As early a reponse as your conveniences will allow, I will much oblige,

On behalf of the Executive Committee,            
Yours truly,                   
Geo. A. Pope.

An Industrial Charity. (The Pennsylvania Freedmen Vol 1, Number 1 - Feb, 1865)
Judge Bond commends to our support an Industrial Home lately started in Baltimore. He will be pleased to learn, that
previous to the receipt of his letter, in reply to an appeal from Mr. George A. Pope, which we publish, the Pennsylvania
Association had resolved to assume the responsibility of the $1,200 named as necessary for'the maintenance of the
institution for one year. This they did, feeling confident that their constituents and coadjutors would justify them in their
action by generous contributions in this behalf.

E. W. Clark, 35 South Third St., is their Treasurer.

Freedom in Maryland. (Pennsylvania Freedmen, Vol 1, Number 1, Feb 1865)
ADDRESS OF THE BALTIMORE FREEDMEN's AID ASSOCIATION.
Rooms of the Baltimore Association for the Moral and Educational Improvement of the Colored People, Room No. 3,
Bible House, Dec. 15, 1864.

Fellow-citizen: Since the adoption of the new Constitution very grave issues are submitted for your consideration.

That instrument, by its benevolent provisions, has added to the eighty thousand free colored people of our State
eighty-seven thousand others, recently slaves.

These two classes constitute the greater portion of the labor of the State.

They are likely to remain among us, for they are attached to their homes, and no government has ever consented to
the violent removal of one-fourth of its population.

For the most part they are ignorant. The habits of their former industry have not, been such as to teach them ideas of
thrift, carefulness or providence. Thrown upon their own resources, though their labor is in great demand, they cannot
be expected to know the necessity of industy, or how to seek at home pemanent occupation and employment.

"We are forced to think it the duty of every citizen of Maryland to seek to make this population most useful to the
State, as it is the bounden duty of Christian men to seek their moral improvement.

There arc but two courses to be pursued. The one is to leave these persons in the ignorance and moral destitution in
which many of them now, unhappily, are, and the other to endeavor by education to improve their habits, instruct them
in their industry, make diligent the idle, reform the vicious and stimulate the good, that they may rise in the scale of
being, and be hetter fitted for the varied duties they ara called on to perform.

The first course may at first seem the least troublesome and expensive, but ignorance is the mother of vice, and
unless these people are taught their duties to the State, and their more important duty to God, and are not suffered to
remain in the helpless state in which slavery has left them, the necessity for almshouses, jails and penitentiaries will
teach the fully of such economy.

Educated labor produces more than uneducated labor,. It is, therefore, tho interest of the State that all labor should
be instructed.

One of the hopes of the friends of emancipation was that that measure wouldiuduce immigration into the State, raise
the price of our lands, give demand for our labor in erecting mills and dwellings, and in manufacturing the various
utensils necessary for the increased population of Maryland. But it cannot be expected that any number of the class of
emigrants we desire will leave their homes to dwell in Maryland if they know they are to be surrounded by an illiterate,
ignorant population, whose ignorance and vice are to fee daily increased by withholding all instruction in the arts of
labor, all educational improvement and every teaching of morality which would lead them to higher ideas of duty to
God and to their neighbor.

To pursue this plan would deprive the State in tho first place of the productive labor of one hundred and sixty
thousand people, and would prevent desirable emigration into her borders, and oppress those of ua now residents of
the State with additional taxation to furnish what the expense of education would have entirely prevented.

Perhaps those of the colored people whose circumstances require daily toil for the support of their families can
receive but little direct benefit at their time of life from any effort now put forth, but we believe the influence of the
education of their children will be felt upon the home and the household, that family respect will increase, that thrift
and cleanliness will be promoted, and the same beneficent effects which education produces upon other populations
will be felt among the colored people.

They have been taxed for along while for public schools, but have been allowed none. Their present condition, when
we consider what has been denied them, and bow little means or opportunity they have had for self-improvement, is a
standing rebuke to those who think tbey are incapable of moral or raental culture.

They long for opportunity to show how readily they become a people no longer degraded by, but useful to the State.

The Baltimore Association for the Moral and Educational Improvement of the Colored People intends to do what it can
to give them such opportunities. Its members will give their best efforts to this charitable purpose.

Those of our fellow-citizens who feel any interest in a people upon whom their vote has thrust the responsibilities of
life, and those in whom Christianity prompts kindness and duty toward these people, are invited to give us their
support in such manner as they may think the most useful, that we, if necessary, by private benevolence may do what
long since ought to have been done, and we hope soon will be done, by the Slate, 1. provide means for the moral and
educational improvement of one fourth of our population.

President—Evans Rogers.
Vice-Presidents—Archibald Stirling, Thos. Kelso, William J. Albert, Francis T. King, John W. Randolph.
Recording Secretary—George A. Pope. Corresponding Secretary—Joseph M. dishing. Treasurer—Jesse Tyson.

Report from January 1867 The American Freedmen
BALTIMORE ANNIVERSARY MEETING.
The anniversary of the Baltimore Branch was held, November 23d, at the new Assembly Rooms, a numerous and
sympathetic audience being in attendance. The meeting was called to order by Wm. J. Albert, Esq., who introduced
Rev. Wm. Bruce, of Baltimore, by whom the prayer of the evening was made, initiatory to the proceedings of the
occasion.

The report of the Secretary was read by Joseph M. Gushing, Esq. The various Friends' societies at home and abroad
have contributed during the year about $7000; the N. E. Branch and the Pennsylvania Branch have contributed in
money and teachers; and the Central Commission, besides an appropriation of $5000 for a normal school, has
contributed from its treasury $2500 for the work in Maryland. In Baltimore, $5800 have been contributed. Great aid
has also been received from the Freedmen's Bureau in the erection of school-houses, and the colored people have
manifested eager willingness to contribute of their small earnings to the support of the schools and teachers. The
work has met with much prejudice and some active opposition; scholars have been annoyed, teachers insulted,
school-houses burned, and, with a few noble exceptions, no protest has been heard from the Christian churches of
the State. This is made j ustly the theme of a wellmerited rebuke:

All their things," the report goes on to Bay, " have had a bad effect, and we found a deaf ear turned when we applied
to the Legislature for aid last year, and our way seemed hard, despite our many and great encouragements when we
remembered that we only asked for these colore< people the thing which was just and rightly due them. For many
years they have paid school taxes, and have reaped no benefit. We hope this will not longer be the case but that our
City Council and Legislature will this year do liberal things, and give to this large population a chance to acquire some
share of education. The colored people In this city pay taxes on over a million of dollars in the savings-banks alone,
and In addition to this pay considerable taxes upon other property.

This cause of their education has always had the support of many of our largest tax-payers, and the mayor of the city
has always warmly supported it, and if you will all unite with us and use what influence you can, we shall obtain from
the City Council an appropriation sufficient to enable us to continue our work In the city. We are an associatlon without
sectarian or political bias; we welcome aid from all men everywhere; we appeal to all classes and conditions of men;
we Invite co-operation from all persons who believe, with us, that every one Is better by as much as he is enlightened;
that intelligent labor is more valuable to the State than ignorant drudgery; that the progress of a State morally and
materially is In proportion to the knowledge of Us people; that an ignorant and degraded population is an element of
weakness and danger; who believe that ignorance breeds vice, and that prevention and punishment of crime are
more costly than a common-school system.  We labor on in the hope that the State will speedily assume this duty of
educating the colored people within its borders, a work which properly belongs to the State, and which may not safely
be neglected. We work now only because the work must be done, and no others seem Inclined to do it.

We have now In operation in this city twenty-two schools, and in the various counties fifty-one schools. We have a
school in every county in the State, except in Charles, Calvert, and St. Mary's counties, and we hope soon to open
schools in those countie*, If you will give us the means.

Our seventy-three schools employ seventy-four teachers —twenty-three in the city and fifty-one In the countie?. Many
of the teachers are colored people, and all of them are trained for the especial work of teaching, employing all the
most approved normal-school methods, and subject to the most vigorous examination before we send them to take
charge of a school.

We have on our school rolls in the city 2,500 names, and in the counties 4,800; and in all the State 7,300 day and
night scholars. Our reports from the various schools— which reports are made by the teachers every month— Biiow
an average attendance of 5,645.

"Note this, and remember that all the night-scholars have hard work to do all day, that many of the day-scholars have
to aid in the support of their families, and then reflect how strong must be the desire for knowledge to induce people
who have grown up in ignorance to make such exertions to obtain It, even inducing them to spend at ichool their only
season of relaxation and amusement."

The statement of receipts and expenses shows that $24,000 will be needed, in addition, to keep up the schools for the
current year. For this, the Association depends largely upon an expected appropriation from the City Council, since,
we believe, granted to them.

In co-operation with our Association, some large-hearted and energetic ladies of Baltimore have established industrial
schools for the females who attend our day and night schools, and have striven to teach them habits of industry and
home comfort.

The idea of sewing-schools originated with two teachers of the colored day-schools. It was communicated to the ladies
of the Branch, and was cordially approved by them. In November, 1865, a sewing-school was opened, a
superintendent engaged, and thus the work commenced. From this beginning, it has grown until an auxiliary society
was formed for the establishment and maintenance of industrial schools, materials were gathered, partly from the
North, and the result already attained is four industrial schools, forty-two ladies as teachers, and over five hundred
scholars. The'report closes with the following strong and earnest appeal:

We began without means, trusting to the goodness of our cause and the kind feeling and good sense of the
community, and we have not learned to doubt any of these, nor do we purpose to abandon this work until the State
takes it up.

We appeal to all charitable persons for aid, becans« these people for whom we ask are very poor and very helpless.
The path of life to them has been very hard; their yoke has been grievous, and their burden not light. You will find
none closer to your own doors than these; you will find none more needing help, none more deserving it.

We demand aid of every Christian, because for these also Christ has died, and because all philanthropy, and every
effort to help the poor, to open the eyes of the blind, to teach the ignorant, and to win men from sin, has a right to aek
and expect aid and countenance from the followers of the Saviour.

If the Christian church thought this State would make common cause for the purpose of teaching the colored people to
read, before two years were over the Word of God need be no sealed book to any one of them,'man, woman, or child.

We urge this appeal strongly upon you all as citizens, because this matter deeply concerns, as we believe, the honor
and safety of this grand old commonwealth. You ought not to sit idly by while within her borders dwell in ignorance
200,000 souls, nearly one-third of all her population, and here within the narrow boundaries of this very city live
40,000, one-sixth of its Inhabitants.

To these people the law has given freedom and legal rights; from them it demands obedience and service. They are
now ignorant and comparatively unrestrained. You must either raise them up or they will drag you down. You must
either make them able to know the laws so that they may obey them, or you must pay heavily to restrain them from
and punish them for crime. You must either teach them chastity, thrift, sobriety, and decency of conduct, or you must
dot your State with alms-houses, jails, and penitentiaries. You need their labor, for without them your Belds will lie
waste, and your business operations be small. They need your money as wages, for without it they will starve or steal;
hence you must teach them the value of contracts and the necessity of observing them; unless you teach them to
read and write, they can not learn this. The advantages of educating them are great, and we can see no
disadvantages.

Therefore do we urge this cause upon this community by every consideration of humanity, Christianity, and sound
political economy."

After the reading of the report, addresses were delivered by the Hon. Archibald Sterling, Jr., Rev. Dr. Dickson, Rev.
Mr. Ware, Hon. Hugh L. Bond, and General Gregory. The meeting, which was largely attended by many of the best
citizens in Baltimore, drawn together by no announcement of a star from abroad, jut by their interest in the work,
marks the srogress of popular feeling in Baltimore, and, we trust, inaugurates a new era there.

Resolution (American Freedmen Vol 2, Issue 5)
A brief explanatory statement of the discussion which accompanied these resolutions will help to place their meaning
more clearly before the reader:

1. Resolved, That the best interests of the freed people require the permanent establishment of free schools in the
South; that, as in the Northern free-school system, the people should cooperate In their support, and, therefore, that
no new schools should be established, except where cooperation exists.

It was stated to the conference that already the efficient industry of the freed people was reaping its harvest. Already
the South, although its industries are still hampered and its life paralyzed by the uncertainties in which its political
reconstruction is involved, is beginning to feel the beneficial effects of free labor. The merchants are purchasing for
the freedmen. Additions are being made to their stores in gome places to accommodate their trade. And in Baltimore
the character of the market is materially affected, many Southern buyers bearing testimony that the freed people are
their best customers.

At the same time much of their money—too much, by far—goes in articles of dress, jewelry, and useless finery. An
impression is allowed to gain ground that the schools are to be free schools, by which the colored people erroneously
understand that they are to be supported wholly without expense to them. Where thrown upon their own resources,
they have shown their ability to do something in the educational work by their support of pay-schools and by their
maintenance of their churches. In Maryland, the colored preachers in the country are often better supported than their
white brethren; and, in one instance recently, a clergyman who was obliged to give up his white parish for want of
support, found, in a neighboring colored church, sufficient means to justify his acceptance of their call.

At the same time it is abundantly evident that they cannot be left to carry on the work unaided. In few sections have
they the means; in many they can really do but little; while in none are they yet educated up to a point where they can
assume the entire direction and charge of the work themselves. No people can be expected to understand the value
of education until they have tasted its benefits. And the colored people, with all their ardent desire for education, are
far more ready to support their churches than their schools. The first are old friends; the second are welcome

innovations. The first are, in their view, indispensable; the second desirable.

We do not call in question their judgment. We simply state the indubitable fact, that they need the stimulus of help far
more in the educational than in the missionary work.

No action in the resolution was taken on the amount of support to be secured. This is necessarily determined by
circumstances. Old and established schools may also continue to be carried on without local cooperation in some
special cases. But it may be regarded as the fixed policy of the various societies to establish no new schools except
where in some form and to some degree the people to tie benefited contribute to their support.

2. Remlnding, That our teachers and agents In the South should organize the people into associations to raise means
to aid in the establishment and support of their schools.

How to secure this cooperation was a problem which evolved considerable discussion. Fortunately the conference was
not left to theories, but had a practical experiment to guide them in their deliberations. This is afforded by the practice
which has been pursued by the Baltimore Association in Maryland.

In the city of Baltimore the schools have been in part supported by a per capita tax. Each pupil has paid ten cents per
week. They have paid cheerfully and easily. In some cases where several children have attended from one family, and
in one or two instances of extreme poverty, the sum has been reduced or remitted, the amount being raised outside
by special contributions. The plan has worked well. The Association has been able to carry on a much larger and
more successful work than they could otherwise have done. And the poorest have been, by special arrangement,
provided for.

A similar course has been pursued in Charleston; the sum being paid, however, at first monthly, and then quarterly,
instead of by the week. We give in another column an amusing extract from the
Freedmen's Record, showing one of
the methods of securing jprompt payment.

In Baltimore now, however, the schools are assumed by the city government, and will be hereafter carried on as public
schools.

In the State at large a different method was pursued. Some members of the Baltimore Society, generally Judge Bond,
have been accustomed to go out from time to time into the counties where schools were needed.  A meeting of ,he
colored people was called. The importance of education was set before them. The whole community wag aroused by
one of those stirr ring appeals in which no one excels the Judge, whom all the colored people of Maryland count as
friend, and who will carry to all time no prouder title than the well-earned conatation of Friend of the Oppressed. Then
the question was put: "What can you do? What will you do?" And the offer was made, "The Bureau will furnish lumber;
the Association will furnish the salary of a teacher; if you will furnish the labor to put up the school-house, and the
board and lodging for the teacher, and provide your own books, you can have a school." The plan worked admirably.
The Freedmen who had not money had industry and homes. They were willing and able to pay in kind. Under this
system school-houses have sprung up all over the State, in the establishment and support of all of which the
Freedmen have proved themselves enthusiastic and efficient colaborers.

This plan gave form to the second resolution. We have no Judge Bond to send through the South. No paid agent
could do the work which his disinterested enthusiasm has accomplished. But in every locality the teachers and
superintendents can do much toward organizing, in their respective localities, associations which may do not a little
toward supporting the schools, and will do much toward giving them that moral support, and that confidence of the
community, and that sense of their being their schools, which will go far toward insuring their perpetuity.

As our readers know, a similar system has been attempted in Georgia, though not as yet with any considerable
pecuniary results.

8. Resolved, That, in the opinion of this meeting, all books should be sold at a price to be fixed by the Teachers'
Committee; and that none should be given away except by special permission of the Committee.

This resolution is indicative not of any change in the policy of the societies, but rather a reaffirmation of an already
long-established policy. At the same time our teachers may understand from it a new and strong expression of the
purpose to give away no school books except under very special circumstances.

Let not our contributors relax their efforts because of this effort on our part to secure a more universal cooperation in
the South. We are assured, beyond all question, that we shall have more than we can do to provide those
communities with schools which are most ready and anxious to help themselves. Petitions pour in upon us from every
quarter, some samples of which this paper affords; petitions which only our want of a fuller treasury prevents us from
granting.

BALTIMORE ANNIVERSARY MEETING. (American Freedmen Vol 1, Number 10 - Jan 1867)
The anniversary of the Baltimore Branch was held, November 23d, at the new Assembly Rooms, a numerous and
sympathetic audience being in attendance. The meeting was called to order by Wm. J. Albert, Esq., who introduced
Rev. Wm. Bruce, of Baltimore, by whom the prayer of the evening was made, initiatory to the proceedings of the
occasion.

The report of the Secretary was read by Joseph M. Gushing, Esq. The various Friends' societies at home and abroad
have contributed during the year about $7000; the N. E. Branch and the Pennsylvania Branch have contributed in
money and teachers; and the Central Commission, besides an appropriation of $5000 for a normal school, has
contributed from its treasury $2500 for the work in Maryland. In Baltimore, $5800 have been contributed. Great aid
has also been received from the Freedmen's Bureau in the erection of school-houses, and the colored people have
manifested eager willingness to contribute of their small earnings to the support of the schools and teachers. The
work has met with much prejudice and some active opposition; scholars have been annoyed, teachers insulted,
school-houses burned, and, with a few noble exceptions, no protest has been heard from the Christian churches of
the State. This is made justly the theme of a wellmerited rebuke:

All these things," the report goes on to say, " have had a bad effect, and we found a deaf ear turned when we applied
to the Legislature for aid last year, and our way seemed hard, despite our many and great encouragements when we
remembered that we only asked for these colored people the thing which was just and rightly due them For many
years they have paid school taxes, and have reaped no benefit. We hope this will not longer be the case but that our
City Council and Legislature will this year do liberal things, and give to this large population a chance to acquire some
share of education. The colored people In this city pay taxes on over a million of dollars in the savings-banks alone,
and In addition to this pay considerable taxes upon other property.

This cause of their education has always had the support of many of our largest tax-payers, and the mayor of the city
has always warmly supported it, and if you will all unite with us and use what influence you can, we shall obtain from
the City Council an appropriation sufficient to enable us to continue our work In the city. We are an astociatlon without
sectarian or political bias; we welcome aid from all men everywhere; we appeal to all classes and conditions of men;
we Invite co-operation from all persons who believe, with us, that every one Is better by as much as he is enlightened;
that intelligent labor is more valuable to the State than ignorant drudgery; that the progress of a State morally and
materially is In proportion to the knowledge of Us people; that an ignorant and degraded population is an element of
weakness and danger; who believe that ignorance breeds vice, and that prevention and punishment of crime are
more costly than a common-school system. '• We labor on in the hope that the State will speedily assume this duty of
educating the colored people within its borders, a work which properly belongs to the State, and which may not safely
be neglected. We work now only because the work must be done, and no others seem Inclined to do it.

We have now In operation in this city twenty-two schools, and in the various counties fifty-one schools. We have a
school in every county in the State, except in Charles, Calvert, and St. Mary's counties, and we hope soon to open
schools in those countie*, If you will give us the means.

Our seventy-three schools employ seventy-four teachers —twenty-three in the city and fifty-one In the countie?. Many
of the teachers are colored people, and all of them are trained for the especial work of teaching, employing all the
most approved normal-school methods, and subject to the most vigorous examination before we send them to take
charge of a school.

We have on our school rolls in the city 2,500 names, and in the counties 4,800; and in all the State 7,300 day and
night scholars. Our reports from the various schools— which reports are made by the teachers every month— Follow
an average attendance of 5,645.

"Note this, and remember that all the night-scholars have hard work to do all day, that many of the day-scholars have
to aid in the support of their families, and then reflect how strong must be the desire for knowledge to induce people
who have grown up in ignorance to make such exertions to obtain It, even inducing them to spend at ichool their only
season of relaxation and amusement."

The statement of receipts and expenses shows that $24,000 will be needed, in addition, to keep up the schools for the
current year. For this, the Association depends largely upon an expected appropriation from the City Council, since,
we believe, granted to them.

"In co-operation with our Association, some large-hearted and energetic ladies of Baltimore have established
industrial schools for the females who attend our day and night schools, and have striven to teach them habits of
industry and home comfort."

The idea of sewing-schools originated with two teachers of the colored day-schools. It was communicated to the ladies
of the Branch, and was cordially approved by them. In November, 1865, a sewing-school was opened, a
superintendent engaged, and thus the work commenced. From this beginning, it has grown until an auxiliary society
was formed for the establishment and maintenance of industrial schools, materials were gathered, partly from the
North, and the result already attained is four industrial schools, forty-two ladies as teachers, and over five hundred
scholars. The report closes with the following strong and earnest appeal:

We began without means, trusting to the goodness of our cause and the kind feeling and good sense of the
community, and we have not learned to doubt any of these, nor do we purpose to abandon this work until the Stat«
takes it up.

We appeal to all charitable persons for aid, becans« these people for whom we ask are very poor and very helpless.
The path of life to them has been very hard; their yoke has been grievous, and their burden not light. You will find
none closer to your own doors than these; you will find none more needing help, none more deserving it.

We demand aid of every Christian, because for these also Christ has died, and because all philanthropy, and every
effort to help the poor, to open the eyes of the blind, to teach the ignorant, and to win men from sin, has a right to aek
and expect aid and countenance from the followers of the Saviour.

If the Christian church thought this State would make common cause for the purpose of teaching the colored people to
read, before two years were over the Word of God need be no sealed book to any one of them,'man, woman, or child.

We urge this appeal strongly upon you all as citizens, because this matter deeply concerns, as we believe, th« honor
and safety of this grand old commonwealth. You ought not to sit idly by while within her borders dwell in ignorance
200,000 souls, nearly one-third of all her population, and here within the narrow boundaries of this very city live
40,000, one-sixth of its Inhabitants.

To these people the law has given freedom and legal rights; from them it demands obedience and service. They are
now ignorant and comparatively unrestrained. You must either raise them up or they will drag you down. You must
either make them able to know the laws so that they may obey them, or you must pay heavily to restrain them from
and punish them for crime. You must either teach them chastity, thrift, sobriety, and decency of conduct, or you must
dot your State with alms-houses, jails, and penitentiaries. You need their labor, for without them your Belds will lie
waste, and your business operations be small. They need your money as wages, for without it they will starve or steal;
hence you must teach them the value of contracts and the necessity of observing them; unless you teach them to
read and write, they can not learn this. The advantages of educating them are great, and we can see no
disadvantages.

Therefore do we urge this cause upon this community by every consideration of humanity, Christianity, and sound
political economy."

After the reading of the report, addresses were delivered by the Hon. Archibald Sterling, Jr., Rev. Dr. Dickson, Rev.
Mr. Ware, Hon. Hugh L. Bond, and General Gregory. The meeting, which was largely attended by many of the best
citizens in Baltimore, drawn together by no announcement of a star from abroad, just by their interest in the work,
marks the progress of popular feeling in Baltimore, and, we trust, inaugurates a new era there.
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Judge Hugh Lennox Bond