Return to Defenses of St. Augustine
Fort San Francisco de Pupo
Bayard Conservation Area, Florida
St. Johns River
Clay County
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Description of Ft. Pupo
In 1737 Spanish engineer, Antonio de Arredondo, said Pupo was made of earth and wood. William Bartram would
describe Ft. Pupo as having "a shallow entrenchment almost filled....(a structure) twenty yards square...twenty yards
from the St. John's River. Woodbury Lowery said that Fort Pupo had a tower like structure of hewn logs.

Bayard was part of Clark's Grant of sixteen thousand acres. The road from St. Augustine to Tallahassee and Tampa
Bay passed through the property and opened the shortest and best avenue from the river to the farming lands of
Altachua. The tract was bounded seven miles by the river. Bayard was surveyed on both sides of the great road and
contained the site of the old Spanish fort of San Fernando. General Duncan L. Clinch in St. Marys and J. Lee Williams
at Bayard or Picolata would be the sellers of the land.

Daniel Garrison Brinton in A guide-book of Florida and the South writes about Fort Pupo in 1869: "On the opposite
bank of the river was the fort of St. Francis de Poppa. Its earthworks are still visible, about one mile north of the
landing. From St. Francis de Poppa the old Spanish road led across the province to St. Marks on the Gulf. Two small
Sulphur Springs are found a short distance from the Picolata landing.