Early History of St. Johns Schools
The Freedmen Bureau,
and Post War Education
in St Johns/St. Augustine for African Americans
Part 4
Presidential Reconstruction
As governor, during the Presidential Plan of Recontruction (1866-1868), Walker further extended universal education by
creating a state system of common schools for Negroes.

The bill which became the law providing for common schools for freedmen was handed to the legislature by Governor
David S Walker. According to the law, the governor was to appoint, with the advice and consent of the senate, a state
superintendent of common schools for freedmen. There was to be a school fund drawn from three sources 1 a tax of
one dollar on each colored person between the ages of twenty-one and fifty-five years, tuition from those who could
afford to pay, and a five dollar fee for the required teacher's certificate.  Governor Walker appointed E. B. Duncan State
superintendent of common schools for freedmen.

July 1, 1867, 34 day schools, and 22 night schools for Negroes. Of these 56 schools, 10 were sustained entirely by the
freedmen and 23 were sustained by them in part. There were six graded schools with 4 grades each.  

The 1866 laws stimulated the establishment of about twenty-five black schools by 1866, schools that were soon united
with the Freedmen's Bureau system. Florida's dual school system continued at least in theory until the constitution of
1868 went into effect.

The school law passed in 1869 avoided all references to race. Florida thus began a tacit policy o spearate educational
facilities which continued despite a state civil rights act of 1873 forbidding any racial discrimination in public schools
cemeteries, hotels, and benevolent institutions supported by general taxation.

It was not until 1877 that Florida established a constitutional basis for legal separation of races in public schools.  

Freedmen Bureau Hunts for Information about Schools
Office  Assistant Commissioner, Bureau Refugees, Freedmen, And Abandoned Lands,
Tallahassee, Fla., October 26, 1865.

I. Chaplain H. II. Moore, 34th United States colored infantry, having been assigned by Major General Foster,
commanding department of Florida, as superintendent of instruction for the Bureau Refugees, Freedmen, and
Abandoned Lands, all officers acting under instructions of the assistant commissioner will report to Chaplain Moore the
following items of information in regard to their respective localities:

1. The number of children, white refugees and black, between the ages of, five and fifteen years, residing in their place
and vicinity.

2. The number and character of the schools now in operation, if any.

3. The school-house accommodations the place affords.

4. The convenience for boarding teachers.

5. The disposition of the people in regard to the establishment of schools among the colored children.

6. The ability and willingness of citizens to pay teachers, in whole or in part, for teaching schools of white children.

7. Is there any call for schools for colored children on plantations.

8. Any information which can be given in regard to the wants of the people concerning education is solicited.

II. Officers are requested, without delay, to secure all the school rooms needed, and a suitable place for boarding
teachers, and report the facts at once; and the fact may be communicated that we shall probably be able to furnish paid
teachers where schools are opened.

III. Circular No. 1, from the office of the superintendent of instruction at Jacksonville, having been issued through a
misapprehension of instructions, is recalled.

                   T. W. OSBORN, Col. and Ass't Comm'r Bureau Refugees, Freedmen, & etc.,

C Thurston Chase Report
Bureau Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands
Office Supt. Education
Jacksonville Fla July 12, 1867

Rev. J W Alvord
Gen Supt Schools
Washingotn DC

Dear Sir:

Enclosed please find supplemental School Report containing information this day recd in response to circular . There
still other schools to hear from.

I had you also an Outline of "Constitution and Bylaws" for a School Society under which organizations are now being
extensively formed. It is only the basis of our Northern common School System in a volunteer rather than legal (and get
it in a legal) form. The directions as to "How to Get a School" are also commended to your attention. I trust these will suit
you. Please notice also plan of organization &c as set for in my Report for June.

Col. Sprague has been absent 2 wks returned today. I submit to him propositions for the erection of school houses to
accommodate more pupils than are reported attending school in the state and as many more wanted. I wish you would
persist in your call for reports for March and May so that I may ultimately get some of the documents belonging to this
office from the late incumbent.

Cordially yours. C Thurston Chase, Supt Education

Night School Rental in St. Augustine
Head Quarters Dist of Florida
Bureau F. R.  & A Lands
Jacksonville Fla
January 21, 1868

Lieut. A. H. Jackson 7th Infty
Actg. Asst. Adjt General,


The Officers appointed by Special Order of the Asst. Commissioner Bu F. R. & A. L. Dist of Fla., constituting a Board for
establishing the rent of a room, to be hired in the city of St. Augustine Fla for the purpose of a Night School, having met
pursuant to said order, at Hd. Qrs. Asst. Comr. Dist of Florida Jacksonvilla Fla. Jany 21, 1868, all members being
present have the honor to report as follows.

I.  The room rented is 21425 feet in size heated by a brick fire-place and chimney and situated on St. George St. in the
city of St. Augustine.

II. The property is rented for the purpose of a night school for freed people.

III. The name of the owner of said property is Saml. Polite.

IV. The rental value establised by the owner said property is $10 per month. Charles Lauabee (?) Leut. 7th Infm, Bt
Captain Allan ? Jackson 2nd Lt 7th Inf BO BRF and A Lands. William Le English 2nd Lieut 7th U. S. Infantry

St. Augustine School Rental by Mather and Perrit
Head Quarters Dist. of Florida
Bureau R. F. & A. Lands
Jacksonville Fla, March 5th 1868

Lieut. A. H. Jackson 7th Infty.
Actq. Asst. Adjt. Genl. Bu. R. F. & A. L.


The Officers appointed by Special Order of the Asst. Comm. Bu. R. F. & A. L. Dist. of Fla.
Jacksonville Fla. March 5th,
1868, all members being present have the honor to report as follows.

I. the rooms to be rented, are two in number, size, 40 x 28 feet base, situated on Charlotte St. in the city of St.
Augustine, and heated by brick fire place and chimney.

II. The property is rented as a school-room for freed children.

III. The names of the owners of said property are Misses Perrit & Mathers.

IV. The rental value established by the Board, for said property, is $20 per month.

C. F. Saualee (?) Lieut 7 Inf Br Capt USA.
Allan U  Inhnn (?) L. 7th Inf Bu R F & AL
William L. English 2d Lieut 7th Inftry

Report by Charles Foster
Office Supt of Education B R F and A L
Jacksonville Fla June 30 1868

Maj Gen O O Howard
Commissioner Bur R F and A L
Washington DC


I have the honor to submit throught he office of the apt commission, the following report pertaining to Freedmen Schools
in the State of Florida.

Upon entering upon the duties of the office of Sup of Education the last of March I found the schools for Freedmen
generally, in a flourishing condition, considering the unfavorable circumstances by which these people were surrounded
being confused by political excitements many of them having failed to make contracts for the year, a large portion of
them in extreme poverty, and in some instances starvation staring them in the face.

Since that period however with the prospect of good crops and of a reconstruction of State affairs a change for the
better has been brought about; and now that the political excitements are mainly over the Freedpeople are paying more
attention to education; having in many instances formed school societies and manifested a willingness to contribute
voluntary labor in the erection of School Houses where the Bureau furnishes the material.

Since my appointment as Superintendent, schools have been in operation in this State as follows:

Schools Reported by Sub Commiss

With the exception of the Sabbath Schools nearly all these have been or are about to be discontinued. (as is customary
at this season when the children are called to assist in gathering the crops of cotton) to be resumed again upon the 1st
of October.

Teachers from the north who have been laboring among the Freedment have nearly all returned to their homes with the
hope that the Northern associations which have been supporting them will send them to this field of labor again in the
Fall. It is to be hoped that the friends of Freedmen in the North will not withdraw their support from these associations
but that they will send more teachers to this State the coming autumn than ever before.

There is an earnest call from nearly every part of the State for a supply of good competent Teachers. It is to be regreted
that we have not a larger number of efficient colored teachers a few of this class are laboring faithfully and are
especially useful - but the larger portion are but poorly fitted for their work, and many of them are utterly incompetent.
We need at least from thirty to forty efficient Teachers from the north. (The Southern Whites will not teach the
Freedmen) either white or black to come down and help us next fall. But the 1st of October we hope to have several
additional new School Houses and expect to be in readiness to furnish better accommodations for Teachers as well as
scholars, than heretofore.

The poverty of the Freed people is such that for another year at least, they will need the assistance of charitable
associations in the north, in order to proceed with their schools with any degree of success. They receive but little help
or sympathy from their former masters, although the public sentiment is less unfriendly towards the colored schools than
six months ago.

Seven School houses have been repaired or partially constructed by the Bureau during the past six months, two have
been entirely constructed, and five are at presnet in process of construction. Arrangements are being made to furnish
materials fro the erection of fifteen other Schools Houses; while in adition to all these, Reports from sub apt
commissioners and agents represent that at least fifty other places in the State stand in need of buildings in which to
hold their Schools.

Many of these places are difficult of access bieng quite remote from RailRaods and from a market where the necessary
building materials can be obtained. Consequently the work of constructing school houses goes on slowly. In most of the
smaller places voluntary labor in the erection of the buildings is promised in cases where the Bureau will furnish the
materials, but in larger towns very little voluntary aid can be obtained.

The School Fund for the Fiscal year just closed has been nearly exhausted, and Fifty Thousand dollars are now needed
for construction and repairs of School Buildings in order to meet the wants of the Freed people in this State. It is hoped
that the commissioner will authorize the unexpended remainder of the Schools Fund for the Fiscal year ending July 1,
1867$18,000 to be made available for this State at an early day.

The State of Florida contimplates establishing common schools free to all as soon as practicalbe; but at present there is
no money in the Treasury; not much revenue can be expected from the School Lands for a long time and several years
must elapse before the State can bring her school system into successful operation. In the mean time the U S
Governemnt with the aid of northern charity, should continue to lookout for the Educational interests of the struggling
Freedpeople of the South and by the establishment of normal schools where Teachers of their own color can be
prepared for this immense work, enable the Colored People eventually to become the educators of their own race.

I have the honor to be General
Very Respectfully
Your Obdt Servt
Charles H Foster
Sup of Education
B R F and A L

Report of the Superintendent of Education for the Freedmen's Bureau Sept 19, 1868
Col John Sprague

I have the honor to submit the following Report of affairs pertaining to Freedmen's Schools in the State of Florida for the
month of August.

But few schools have been in session during the month as shown by Statistical Reports submitted to you on the 9th inst.
the number reported being but three with an aggregate of 100 pupils which with the estimated number not reported to
this office gives a total of 265 pupils.

In reply to a communication addresed by your request to the Freedmen's Union Com at New York relation to a supply of
Teachers for the ocming Fall, I received a letter informing me that greatly to their regret they will not be able to continue
the work they have hitherto prosecuted in Fla. The Commission however hope to be able to send out one Teacher to
take charge of a "Pay School" in Fernandina, alson one to take charge of the normal school at Jacksonville. In reply to a
similar communication addressed to the Am Miss Association, I was infromed by a letter from that society (which was
placed in your hands a few days since) that it proposes to interest itself in the schools of Florida and will send out
Teachers sufficient I think to supply all vacancies. This however on condition that the Bureau will support the Teachers
in part.

In my annual Report submitted to you in the month of June I estimated that we should need in this State this fall from
thrity to forty teachers from the north and urged the importance of securing that number if possible since the date of that
report such changes have been brought about in many districts of the state consequent upon Reconstruction and
withdrawal of the Troops, that I should deem it unadvisable to send to Florida more than twenty white Teachers at
present. The feeling seems to prevail to considerable extend that the schools of the Freedpeople should be taught by
Teachers of their own color, and I am of the opinion that colored Teachers might in many instances be sent into the
interior and owuld be allowed to engage in the vocation unmolested, when white Teachers would be liable to abuse and

The following is an extract from a recent School Report (which was placed before you a few days since) received from
Capt A. B. Greenville,? Commanding of the Bureau for Jefferson County. "In many of the locations it would be
unpleasant for white persons to teach at Monticillo it might be feasible, but the rough accommodations and the small pay
would offer small inducements for compententTeachers. They would have to associate almost entirely with the colored
people, as the present political feeling is high and ? and nay white person who teaches Freemmen would be suspected
of furnishing him with ideas inimical to the Southern sentiment unless he were a Southern himself"

Believing the above to illustrate the existing feeling in many parts of this state, I would therefore recommend that for the
present white teachers from the north be furnished for the following named places only.

And in view of the fact that an unusual degree of sickness prevails in the interior of the State. I would recommend that
with the exception of the first three places above named no teacher from the North be established in Florida before the
1st of November.
Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Fernandina being more healthy than the interior it would be advisable
to commence schools at those places on the 1st of October.

School Buildings are in process of construction at the following mentioned places Pensacola, Warrenton, Milton,
Monticello and Madison.

It is to be regretted that the Legislature of Florida recently in session made no appropriation for its schools. A School Bill
was introduced before that body, but the Legislature adjourned without giving it due consideration as a consequence
little progress can be made by the state towards the organization of a schools system until another Fall.

I have the honor to be Sir
Very Respectfully
Your Obent Sevt
Charles H. Foster
Supt of Education
B R F and A S, Florida

1869 School Law
Constitution of 1868
Section 1 It is the paramount duty of the State to make ample provisions for the education of all
the children residing within its borders, without distinction or preference.

Section 2. The legislature shall provide a uniform system of common schools and a university, and
shall provide for the liberal maintenance of the same. Instruction in them shall be free.

Section 3. There shall be a superintendent of public instruction whose term of office shall be four
years, and until the appointment and qualification of his successor. He shall have general
supervision of the educational interests of the State. His duties shall be prescribed by law.

Section 4 The common-school fund, the interest of which shall be exclusively applied to the
support and maintenance of common schools and purchase of suitable libraries and apparatus
therefor, shall be derived from the following sources:

The proceeds of all lands that have been or may hereafter be granted to the State by the United
States for educational purposes; appropriation by the State; the proceeds of lands or other
property which may accrue to the State by escheat or forfeiture; the proceeds of all property
granted to the State when the purpose of such grant shall not be specified; all moneys which may
be paid as an exemption from military duty; all fines collected under the penal laws of this State;
such portion of the per capita tax as may be prescribed by law for educational purposes; twenty-
five per cent of the sales of public lands which are now or hereafter may be owned by the State.

Section 5. A special tax of not less than one mill on the dollar of all taxable property of the State, in
addition to the other means provided, shall be levied and apportioned annually for the support and
maintenance of common schools.

Section 6. The principal of the common-school fund shall remain sacred and inviolate.

Section 7. Provision shall be made by law for the distribution of the common-school fund among
the several counties of the State in proportion to the number of children residing therein between
the ages of four and twenty-one years.

Section 8. Each county shall be required to raise annually by tax for the support of common
schools therein, a sum not less than one-half the amount apportioned to each county for that year
from the income of the common-school fund. Any school district neglecting to establish and
maintain for at least three months in each year such school or schools as may be provided by law
for such district shall forfeit its portion of the common-school fund during such neglect.

Section 9. The superintendent of public instruction, secretary of state, and attorney general shall
constitute a body-corporate, to be known as the board of education of Florida. The
superintendent of public instruction shall be president thereof. The duties of the board of
education shall be prescribed by the legislature.

School Law of 1869
General and uniform system of public instruction throughout the State, wherein tuition was to be
free to all the youth residing in the State between the ages of six and twenty-one years.

County Boards of Public Instruction not more than 5 members all whom were appointed by the state board of education
after being nominated by the superintendent of public instruction and recommended by the representatives of the
county. The county superintendent of schools was by virtue of his office, its secretary and agent. The chairman and
other officers were chosen by the board itself.

1 assume and hold title to all property of the county, and to have the oversight, management, and
disposition of the same, keeping in mind the best educational interests

2 to receive, hold and manage the common-school funds of the county, with due regard to their
just distribution and use

3 to locate and maintain schools, as needed within the county, for not less than three months in
each year

4 to have oversight of the construction, rental, repair, and improvement of the schoolhouses,
feces, grounds, and equipment;

5 to procure the textbooks and proper apparatus for the schools, and the books and stationery
needed by the teachers

6 to grade and classify the pupils

7 to examine, certificate, employ, and pay the teachers

8 to fix the compensation and expenses of the county superintendent of schools

9 to choose candidate for admission to the state university or seminaries

10 to determine the amount of money to be raised by taxation for educational purposes within the

11 to keep an accurate record of all their official acts, proceedings, and decisions of all financial
matters relating to the schools of the county, of the state and condition of each school, and to
report to the superintendent of public instruction when so required

12 to do whatever was reasonable and necessary for the educational welfare of the county.

County Superintendents of Schools
1 2 year term
2 to ascertain the places where schools were needed

3 to present plans and estimates for the construction and improvement of school buildings

4 to visit the schools of the county, carefully observe the condition of the same, and give such
helpful suggestions as he deemed proper

5 to arouse a greater interest in education throughout the county

6 to select, for appointment by the county board of education, the local school trustees, and, when
elected, to see that they attended to their duties and were kept supplied with copies of the laws
decisions, blanks, and regulations of the state department of education

7 to decide on appeal to him, all disputes and controversies arising within the county, or refer
them to the county board for decision

8 to see that the educational affairs of the county were properly guarded, and that its rights to in
relation to education were secured

9 to establish and maintain schools within the county

10 to examine and certificate teachers when empowered to do so by the county board, and to
revoke or suspend the same when sufficient cause was given;

11 to perform all the acts of the county board of ed when that body failed or neglected to attend to
its duties;

12 to suspend any certificate when there was a good reason for doing so

13 to keep a record of each school in the county and of the expenditure therefor.

Local School Trustees

1 to attend to the construction and rental of school buildings

2 to look after the school property and make or oversee the making of repairs and improvements

3 to see that the schools were properly supplied with suitable textbooks and teaching supplies

4 to examine each school once a month and see that it was conducted in accordance with the rules
and regulations of the state department of public instruction

5 to assist the teachers, when necessary, in matters of attendance and discipline

6 to try to awaken among the people an increased interest in education

7 to suggest changes and improvements to the county superintendent of schools

8 to keep a complete and reliable record of all their official acts and proceedings and the length of
time actually taught by each teacher

9 to certify the accounts of teachers and other persons to the county board of education

10 to make a report to the county superintendent of schools every 3 months, or oftener when
required, on all matters committed to their charge.

1. To work faithfully and industriously for the growth of the pupils in subject-matter;

2. To labor earnestly to raise the moral tone of the pupils

3 to lead the pupils, both by precept and by example to an acquaintance with, and the practice of,
the different virtues

4 to require them to observe such virtues as personal cleanliness, neatness, orderliness,
promptness, and courtesy, and to avoid such vices as vulgarity and profanity

5 to cultivate in them a consideration for the rights and  feelings of others and the realization of
their own duties and responsibilities as citizens;

6 to see that the property of the school was not injured in any way

7 to enforce the rules and regulations of the school in regard to the conduct of the pupils;

8 to suspend those who persistently violated the rules and regulations

9 to hold a public examination once each term, that is, once a month

10 and on closing or suspending the school, to turn over to the trustees of the school the keys and
all the property and at all times to conform to the rules and regulations of the department of
public instruction.

A State Board of Education was first established in Florida by the school law of 1869. It was an
Ex-Officio Board, consisting of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Secretary of
State, and the Attorney General.

Teachers at Work - from the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1869
It is proper to speak, in passing, of three classes of schools in which the teachers have shown much true devotion. they

First. Private schools conducted by persons of either race. The teachers have been poorly paid, yet many have
continued their schools when they did not receive sufficient compensation to pay their board. Such earnest devotion
should be remembered when there are funds to pay good teachers with.

Second. Schools opened under the auspices of the State. According to authority of the act to "establish common
schools for freedmen," the superintendent of these schools purposed paying at least twelve dollars a month to each
teacher while engaged; but the failure to collect the capitation tax on freedmen, left him without means to pay them.
Many teachers have continued their work until they were driven from it, into other callings to earn their daily bread.

Measures have been taken to ascertain the names and length of time persons were engaged in this manner, agreeable
to the joint resolution of the Legislature at the summer session. Partial returns have been received; when complete they
will be laid before you. There is at least a moral obligation on the part of the State to carry out the pledges originally
made to this class of teachers.

Third. Schools conducted under the auspices of Northern benevolent associations. Numbers of the ladies who assumed
the duties of teachers, were persons of wealth and high social positions at home. Coming at a time when the freed
children were cast suddenly at the threshold of a new life, unused to the responsibilities and ignorant of the duties thus
thrust upon them, they were welcomed with great joy, and labored with sincere Christian devotion, amidst hardships and
privations. The teachers have changed, but most of the schools are still maintained.

Report on School Building
Bureau R. F and A  L.
Office Supt of Education
Jacksonville July 2, 1869

Bvt. Brig Genrl E Whittlesey
AAAG Bu R. F. and A. L.
Washington, D. C.


The receipt of your communication of the 24th inst. calling for a report of the Educational work of the Bureau for the
year ending June 30, 1869. I have the honor to acknowledge, but as I have not been a year on duty at this Post and the
records of the office work performed previous to my arrival being very incomplete. I necessairily confined my report to
the eight months that have elapsed since the date Nov. 1, 1868 on which I assumed charge of the Bureau affairs of this

On entering upon the duty assigned me I found seven schools in operation of which three were taught in buildings for
which rent was paid and four in buildings furnished free of rent usually churches owned by Colored sociieties. These
buildings were not at all adapted to the use they had been built. The teachers employed were doing their best to make
their schools successful but these accommodations were so inferior that their efforts were not over successful.

Several subscription schools taught by colored teachers were struggling along but failing to receive the necessary
pecuniary support soon closed.

The freedmen for some reason seemed discouraged and apathetic upon the subject of education or had lost
confidence in the ability or will of the Bureau to assist them. Even northern men who should know the value of free
schools to a community evinced but little interest in the work. An appropriation for school purposes made by the State
Legislature was laying in the Treasury. The state body that made the appropriation having failed to designate the way in
which it should be disbursed.

From the foregoing outline you may judge of the the condition of the educational department of the Bureau on the date
of my arrival and of the labor necessary to be performed in that direction to make it of mutual benefit to the Gov't and
the Freedmen.

To gain the confidence and moral cooperation of the friends of the course by practical proofs of the good intentions of
the Gov't and at the same time supply the pre-requisite of good schools  I at once commenced the construction of
school houses upon lands which had been donated and purchased for the purpose deeds of which I found on file at this
office. Five have been pushed forward to completion with commendible energy by those having the work in charge.
Kings Ferry a small but energetic town on the St. Marys River received the first attention and on the first day of January
1869 the new house was opened under the most flattering promise of success which have since been all performed
while this house was in t course of construction arrangements were being perfected for the erection of a
Normal School
House in Jacksonville ground was finally broken about the middle of December '68 and on the 7th day of April 1869 a
building containing six class rooms one Lecture room with library and janitors rooms was completed and ready for
occupancy having but three teachers to assign to duty there I applied to Mr. Chase State Supt, who presented the
matter to the County Board of Education and they in conjunction with the Trustees of the school property at once
agreed to furnish funds for the payment of three additional ones, and on the 12th the schools were transferred from the
wretched buildings where they had been languishing for three years to a structure complete in all its  appointments and

For the purpose of calling the attention of the people of the State to the work that was going on in their midst, this
building was dedicated with ceremony all  the prominent men of the state colored and white  were invited to be present
nearly all responded, many of them travelling a long distance at considerable expense to participate in the exercises of
the day. a full report of the dedicational ceremonies clipped from the Florida Union is appended.

A short time since these scenes were re enacted in Tallahassee even to the employment of additional teachers by the
County Board, who advanced private funds in payment of their services.

The House at
Quincy is now ready for occupancy and not withstanding the lateness of the season teachers have been
employed and the trustees say "We are bound to have a school all summer."

While the work was going on schools already organized received our attention and encouragement frequent inspections
increased their efficiency in calling to them the attention of all classes stimulating thereby the ambition of teachers and
pupils to greater exertion.

The western coast has been explored if I may be allowed to use that word from
Escambia County to Key West to
ascertain the educational requirements of that hitherto entirely neglected section of the state and not less than thirty
localities were discovered where schools ought to be established. This inspection brought to light a fact which should
not be forgotten that the white inhabitants occupying the coast from
Cedar Keys nearly down to Key West were firm in
their loyality to the Gov't during the rebellion and furnished two regiments of Cavalry to one service and they are without
schools and too poor to support them, but they are as anxious as a people can be to have them established in their

This work on the part of the Bureau evidently put the State machinery in motion, and caused the Legislature to pass a
very good school law almost unanimiously. The democratic members even not having been forced into open hostility to
free schools soon after the surrender when it was treason to the "Lost Cause" to interferer anything of Yankee growth-
voted with the Republicans thereby divesting this work of any political significance.

Several southern men have been appointed on County Boards of Education, and are enthuiastic in the discharge of the
duties devoting upon them. The prevailing sentiment is in favor of Educating the negro, there is no open opposition on
the part of any class, while many of the leading southern men are avowed friends of the cause. In several instances the
wives of southern men now monthly have entered negro schools and assisted northern teachers.

Much may be expected from this good feeling and if the one great necessity "Good Teachers" can be supplied for the
season of 69 and '70 Florida shall not be far behind in her educational work.

Two thousand volumes of school books have been procured from the
Peabody Fund and distributed to scholars whose
parents were too poor to purchase.

In addition to the work completed arrangements have been made for construction of school houses to be furnished on
or before Oct 1, 1869 as follows

Newnausville - one - partial
Mananua - one
Manderin - one
Magnolia - one
St. Augustine - one

Enclosed please find statistical report marked "B" on the 30th of June all schools in the state closed out two exceptions
Tallehassee and Quincy.

St. Augustine Examiner October 23, 1869
A little further to the West and North, is the new Freedman's School; a fine building, capacious, well arranged,
comfortably and creditably finished and furnished. An ornament to this city and a well spring of knowledge for our
colored youth. This will also shortly be opened by competent teachers. (Note: the building was authorized on May 26,
1869 with construction approved on July 15, 1869. The building cost 4,000.00. It was located on Spanish Street on the
Old Dragoon lot. This was for its time the highest priced school in Florida.)
Governor David Walker
(May 2, 1815 - July 20, 1891)
In office
January 18, 1866 – July 4, 1868
Rev. J. W. Alvord
Superintendent Freedmen Bureau Education
General O O Howard
Commissioner Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned
Day and Night Schools
No. of Pupils
Sabbath Schools
Plantations 25
Totals 53
St. Augustine
Lake City
Live Oak
Col John Sprague
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St. Johns County
St. Augustine Territorial
St. Augustine Statehood
Early History of Education St. Johns
County Part 1
Early History of Education St. Johns
County Part 2
Early History of Education St. Johns
County Part 3 (African American History)
Early History of Education St.Johns County
Part 4 (Freedmen Bureau)
Early History of Education St. Johns
County Rise of the St Johns County
School Board Part 5
Early History of Education St. Johns
County Growth of St. Johns County
Schools Part 6
Early History of Education St. Johns
County Through the 1890s St. Johns
County Schools Part 7