Defenses of St. Augustine
The Hornwork
The Beginnings
While the 1702 attack was successfully repulsed weaknesses were exposed in the St. Augustine defenses. The guns
of the
Castillo could not stop an attack that involved traveling down the San Sebastian River side and entering the
town. Shortly after the burning of St. Augustine the
Cubo line was constructed. Governor Corcoles constructed a
heavy log palasade nort of the Cubo line redoubts. The area between the Cubo line and the Hornwork was given to
the Indians for farming. Hornwork is from the Dutch Hornwerk an outwork resembling a pair of horns whose
configuration consists of a curtain wall with a demi-bastion on each side. It extended from a cove at the Mission
Nombre de Dios property west in the vicinity of Cincinnati and Rohde avenues to the St. Sebastian River. The
Hornwork provided protection for the La Costa and La Leche missions, where displaced Creek Indians settled in the
present day Abbott Tract. The La Leche village included a coquina chapel near the northern end of Water Street.

Construction of the Line
The construction on the 2 line located 1/2 mile from St. Augustine was begun around 1712. This line was close to the
Indian town named Nombre de Dios and parallels Mission Street today. Governor Martinez ordered its construction.
The line was a thick stockade made of whole pines.It was later convered into a work of sod 15 feet high topped with
thorns. A ditch ran the length which filled with tidal water from the North River and the San Sebastian River.  There
was a gate for the Horn Road which ran through the work. "The first hornwork consisted of three strong points: a
sizable fort next to the Indian village of Nombre de Dios, the gate of the palisade, and the "cola" tail of the line. In
1712, these guard posts were manned by 68 soldiers" - (from a report by governor Francisco de Corcoles y Martinez
to the crown.)

Repairs Needed
By 1716 repairs were needed to the line. The repairs consisted of using a better quality of wood that would be more
resistant to decay.

Col John Palmer Invades Florida
On March 12, 1728 Colonel John Palmer of Carolina attacked Spanish Florida with 300 Englishmen and 100 Indians..
He had great success destroying the Indian Missions but could not take St. Augustine. For 3 days Palmer pillaged and
burned killing 30 amasees and taking 15 prisoner. Palmer breached the Hornwork at old Nombre de Dios and
destroyed the church taking down the crucifix and the censer. No soldiers were sent from the fort to protect the
indians and fugitive slaves. Governor Benavides blew up the stone buildings at Nombre de Dios.

The 1746 Reconstruction
The Hornwork was under construction during 1746-48.

At the End of the First Spanish Period
In 1763 the Hornwork was described as an earthwork 13 3/4 feet high, consisting of a bastion in the east on the bank
of Hospital Creek another bastion in the center and a half-bastion in the west on the band of the San Sebastian. The
gate in the Hownwork was in the middle of the curtain between the center bastion and the half bastion. The Mission
Indians abandoned their land and St. Augustine in 1763 when the British acquired Florida.

British Period
J. Purcell, Surveyor created a map that showed the "barrier retrenchment," as the old Hornabeque Line was then
called, extending, from Hospital Creek on the east to Sebastian Creek on the west. The retrenchment and ravelin
parapets seem to have had a revetment, backed by the earthwork, and a firing step behind the parapet. A moat
paralleled the three bastions and the two curtains and partially the ravelin, which protected the retrenchment gate,
located between the middle and western bastions. At the western angle formed by face and flank in the eastern
bastion, at the same two angles in the middle bastion, and at the eastern angle of the western bastion, redoubts had
been constructed within the face and flanks of the bastions. The western bastion was still a half bastion as in Spanish
times, and slightly to the rear of the eastern bastion was the hospital.

Second Spanish Period
Rocque recommended the repair of the moat walls and the construction of a bridge, partly fixed and partly draw.

In 1938 Chatelaine could find very little of the hornwork line.
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