Assorted Documents
Freedmen Bureau Schools
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Return to Freedmen Bureau Assorted Documents
While schools existed before the War of the Rebellion it is unknown how many or how much
influence they had especially since schooling in the south was so minimal for everyone. However
it is well-documented that there were slaves and freed blacks before the war that had mastered
the ability to read and write.

Port Royal Experiment for the beginnings of teachers in South Carolina, Georgia and
Florida. Fernandina and then St. Augustine are some sites of the earliest schools created by
the National Freedmen's Association (New York) and the American Missionary Association.
Fortress Monroe in Virginia would be the earliest training center for these teachers. In the Sea
Islands they would have been under the supervision of
General Saxton from his role as Military
Governor for the
Department of the South.

Rev. John W. Alvord
October 1865  Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector for the Freedmen Bureau

In Maryland the society that assisted the Bureau with finding local teachers was The Baltimore
Association for the Moral and Educational Improvement of the Colored People. This society
gave its first annual report in November, 1865.

The President was William J. Albert with vice presidents of Galloway Cheston, A Stirling, Thomas
Kelso, Francis T. King, Thomas Whitridge with the board of managers of E. Stabler, Rev F.
Israel, W. K Carson, Rev F. W. Brauns, Rev. William Bruce, Hon H. L. Bond, Rev George P
Hays, William Kennedy, Dr. C. C. Cox, Daniel Holliday, William McKim, James Carey, Evans
Rogers, Henry Stockbridge, A. M. Carter, A. Striling, William Daniel, J. A. Needles, Rev. J.. F. W.
Ware, Dr. J. C. Thomas, G. T. Hopkins, Ashur Clarke, R. M. Jammey, James Carley Coale, John
T. Graham, A. T. Johnson, and Edward Reese.

In January 1865 they started with their 1st school under the direction of Leander Waterman in
the Cranes Building corner of Calvert and Saratoga streets in Baltimore.  By November there
were 16 schools in seven buildings with 16 teachers 13 white and 3 black. Richard M. Janney
became the canvassing agent for the American Freedmen's Aid Commission for Maryland.
Schools were opened in Easton and Talbot County.

While most of the beginnings of education for African-Americans is unknown in Florida. The
census of 1850 documents the presence of freed blacks in St. Augustine that could read and
write. It is probable that they attended the school that the Catholic Church had organized

Rev. H. H. Moore
In October, 1865, General Foster, commanding the military department of Florida, appointed
Chaplain H. H. Moore (white), of the 34th United States Colored Infantry, state superintendent of
education for Freedmen. Assistant-Commissioner Osborn immediately directed all sub-assistant
commissioners of the Bureau to report to Moore as soon as possible the number of negro
children between five and fifteen in their respective districts; the number and character of the
schools already established; the school-house accommodations; the means for boarding and
lodging teachers; the disposition of the whites toward negro schools; the ability and willingness
of the people, black and white, to pay teachers, etc.

Ansel E. Kinne
Ansel E. Kinne  (from Syracuse, New York where he had been a school principal)  was
supposedly appointed by Secretary of War Stanton as Superintendent of Schools for Florida.
But from it appears from the June 1866 document to have been limited to
National Freedmen's
Relief Association Schools since he did not recognize the American Missionary schools in this
report.   He was the brother-in-law of  Chloe Merrick the teacher at
Fernandina who established
the Asylum. (She would later marry Harrison Reed, Florida's Reconstruction Governor.) He
resigned his post of Superintendent before the end of 1866. He is also listed as an agent of the
Freedmen's Bureau in an earlier (October 1866) report.

A. E. Kinne to Major S. L. McHenry - Report of Florida Schools June 30, 1866

Rev. L. M. Hobbs
October, 1866, twenty-five common schools for blacks had been established by the state. L. M.
Hobbs, an ex-chaplain of the 3rd Colored Infantry and Federal provost-marshal at Tallahassee,
was appointed by Governor Walker state superintendent of negro schools."

                                           Freedmen Bureau
E. B. Duncan was listed  as inspector and superintendent of schools in November 1866. Duncan
served until June 1867, when he was replaced by C. T. Chase.

Letter to Bvt Maj General Foster from E. B. Duncan - December 1, 1866

Chase, who served from June 1867 to March 1868, was succeeded by Charles Foster. C
Thurston Chas was the first Florida Superintendent of Education from 1868-1870

How to Get a School - C. Thurston Chase - June 30, 1867

Supplemental Report of C. Thurston Chase to Rev. J. W. Alvord July 12, 1867

C Thurston Chase Report to National Freedmen August 7, 1867

Charles Foster was formerly Assistant Commissioner, who served from March through
December 1868.
Report of Charles Foster, Florida Superintendent of Education for Freedmen's Bureau - 1868

Charles Foster to Rev. George Whipple, October 1, 1868

George W. Gile, who was the Assistant Commissioner at the time, became the superintendent of
education for the Bureau.

                Florida State Superintendents of Education
C Thurston Chas was the first Florida Superintendent of Education from 1868-1870.

C. Thurston Chase to Rev E. P. Smith, Schools in Marion County year round teaching for
teachers, January 4, 1870

Henry Quarles was the second Florida Superintendent of Education (1870-71)

Rev. Charles Beecher was the third Florida Superintendent of Education (1871-1873)

Jonathan Gibbs was appointed the fourth Florida Superintendent of Education by Governor
Ossian Hart. (1873-1874) He died in office. Jonathan Gibbs was the first African American to be
chosen to a statewide office.

Annual Report of the Education Department, June 30, 1869

Assorted Teachers in Various Schools after April 1865

Peabody Education Fund Funding for Public Schools Only

Bishop Payne to Rev. George Whipple about African Methodist Episcopal appointments in the
South, July 6, 1865

Normal Schools American Missionary 1867

Sample of
AMA Teacher Commission

AMA Teacher Instructions

AMA Teachers 1866-67

Col Thomas Osborn - Circular No. 7 School Information October 26, 1865

Monthly Report of E. V. Richmond (unknown school and location) - December 1869

Florida Constitution of 1868 Enabling 1869 School Law

Florida Department of Public Instruction Circular No. 3

Monthly Report E. B. Eveleth and M. Gardner, June 1868

Monthly Report E. B. Eveleth, April 1871

Monthly Report Strawberry Mills School, Carrie Jocelyn, December 1865

Strawberry Mills Mission - January 1, 1866

Monthly Report of Adult School Jacksonville Florida Emma B. Eveleth January/February 1866

Monthly Report of Adult School Jacksonville Florida Emma B. Eveleth March 1866

Monthly Report of Mrs. H. B. Greely, Summis Plantation, March, 1866

Monthly Report of Annie McBartimus and Emma B. Eveleth School No. 2, April 1866

Monthly Report Carrie Jocelyn, Normal and Adult, April 1866

Monthly Report of Adult School Jacksonville Florida Emma B. Eveleth June 1866

Monthly Report of Jacksonville School Jacksonville Florida Miss E. C. Stowe and Miss E. B.
Eveleth July 1866

Rev. Greeley on Strawberry Mills Mission, Jacksonville American Missionary 1867

Ketchum to Sprague on Appropriation for Construction of Stanton Normal - Aug 29, 1867

Staton Normal School

Monthly Report of W. C. Robinson - Stanton, Dec 1869

Monthly Report of Celia Williams - Stanton, Dec 1869

Monthly Report of Paula Williams - Stanton, Dec 1869

Monthly Report of Elsie Toller - Stanton, Dec 1869

Monthly Report of E. C. Stafford - Stanton, March 1870

Monthly Report of M C Robinson - Stanton, March 1870

Stanton Normal School Monthly Report (Freedmen's Bureau Form) - April, 1870

Stanton Normal School Monthly Report - December, 1870

Stanton Normal School Monthly Report - May, 1871

                                          St. Augustine
St. Augustine Letters from Teachers and Administrators on Freedmen Bureau Schools

Freedmen's Bureau Monthly Report Williams and Smith, June 1867

Monthly Report Colored School Semple and Lightfoot Watkins March 1871

Monthly Report Colored School Semple and Lightfoot April 1871

Monthly Report Bronson School Semple and Lightfoot May 1871

Monthly Report Bronson School Semple and Watkins, June 1871

Why St. Augustine Got It's First African-American School

1st School Report of Dr. Oliver Bronson to the Florida Superintendent of Schools for St. Johns
County Public Schools

Beginnings of Public Schools in St. John's County

Dr. Bronson's 1872 Florida School Report St. Johns County, Florida

Dr. Oliver Bronson's 1873 State Report to the State of Florida for St. Johns County Public

Savannah Slave Market School January 1865

Savannah Education Association January 1865

Freedmen of Savannah - Savannah Education Association January 1865

Richardson's Report on Creation of Savannah Education Association, January 2, 1865

Oglethorpe School of Savannah The Freedmen's Record, May, 1865

Movement to Augusta Georgia May 25, 1865

Rev. James Lynch Introduction to Augusta Georgia, July 25, 1865

Augusta Report, January 1866

Augusta Teacher's Report March 1866

Miss E. W. Douglass, Wildthorn, American Missionary 1867

Circular Letter from Superintendent E. A. Ware  September 1868

History of Straight University

Straight University Staff

Straight University J. M. Healy to AMA - June 25, 1869  

Straight University to AMA April 22, 1873

Bishop Payne on agreement to set up schools, April 29, 1864

                                   Anne Arundel County
M L Hoy, Davidsonville, 1868

                                 Prince George's County
Land Purchase Agreement for Freedmens Bureau schoolhouse circa 1868

Deed for Property, June 11, 1867

Letters from Teachers 1866 - 1868

Charlotte A. Crafts to Mrs. Edna D. Cheney, May 31, 1866

Phineas P. Whitehouse to Mrs. Edna D. Cheney March 11, 1867

Phineas P. Whitehouse to Miss Stevenson, Milton Society Nov 8, 1867

Isaac T. Gibson on Missouri Schools 1867

North Carolina
A Freedmen's Story, Person County, 1867

South Carolina
Report on Teachers in Beaufort, December 28, 1864

James Redpath - Charleston - March 9, 1865

G. Pillsbury - Charleston - March 10, 1865

James Redpath - Charleston Schools - April, 1865

J. P. Blake - Edisto Island - April, 1865

Thomas W. Cardozo to Whiting (Charleston), April 11, 1865

Thomas W. Cardozo to Struby on Charleston Schools, April 29, 1865

H. H. Hunter to Rev. Striby (Charleston), May 6, 1865

Assistant Charleston Superintendent Allen to Thomas W. Cardozo Organization of Charleston
Schools, May 30, 1865

Glebe Street Presbyterian Church Circular (Charleston), June 1865

Rev. E. J. Adams, Missionary Report (Charleston), December, 1865

Capt O. L. B. Wall to Rev. Geo Whipple about General Saxton, Dec. 11, 1865

Monthly Teacher's Report Jonathan J. Wright, January 1866

Monthly Superintendents Report Jonathan J. Wright, Unknown date

Monthly Teacher's Report Jonathan J. Wright, February 1866

Monthly Teacher's Report F L. Cordoza - Charleston, Feb 1866

Francis Lewis Cardozo to Whipple on Saxton School (Charleston), May 18, 1866

Pennsylvania Freedmen's Bulletin - Annie Heacock - July 18, 1866

Pennsylvania Freedmen's Bulletin - Laura M. Towne (1865-66 Report) - October, 1866

Pennsylvania Freedmen's Bulletin - Instructions to Teachers  - October, 1866

Sea Island School List with remarks, C Thurston Chase, !867

Monthly Teacher's Report, Martha Clary, Mitchelville Alphabet, April 1867

Monthly Teacher's Report Elizabeth Hill, Mitchelville Primary, April 1867

Monthly Teacher's Report, Margaret Burke, April 1867

Monthly Teacher's Report, George C. Carpenter, Marshland School, April 1867

Robert Small and Board to American Missionary Association (Beaufort), December 31, 1867

Jonathan Jasper Wright on Beaufort, November 14, 1868

Pennsylvania Freedmen's Bulletin - Fund raising Letter - January 15, 1869

Rev. L. C. Lockwood Hampton (Early years at Fortress Monroe) - September, 1871

H. C. Perry, History of Norfolk - September, 1871

Monthly Teacher's Report Jonathan Wright, Dec 1865

Letter Requesting Teacher,  August 28, 1865

128th USCT
Report on the 128th USCT by Jonathan Wright, March 2, 1866
1846 - formation of the American Missionary Association

November 7, 1861 - Port Royal, South Carolina captured by the
United States Navy and Army.

January 15, 1862 - General T. W. Sherman sents
letter requesting
teachers for the ex-slaves.

Feb 4, 1862 -
New England Freedmen's Aid Society formed.

Feb 20, 1862 -
The National Freedman's Relief Association formed
in  New York.

March 4, 1862 -
Amelia Island, Fla., occupied by the Union forces.

March 11, 1862 - Surrender of St. Augustine

May 30, 1862 -
General Rufus Saxton appointed Military
Governor of the
Department of the South (South Carolina, Georgia
and Florida).

November, 1862 - National Freedmen's Relief Association schools
begin in
Fernandina (Syracuse) and St. Augustine.(Chloe Merreck
and Cornelia Smith)

January 1, 1863 -
Emancipation Proclamation

1863 - Carrie E. Jocelyn first American Missionary teacher in
Florida arrives in St. Augustine

March 3, 1865 - Freedmen's Bureau created

November 1866 - E. B. Duncan appointed Superintendent of
Freedmen Bureau Schools - Florida.

June, 1867 - C. T. Chase appointed Superintendent of Freedmen
Bureau Schools - Florida.

March 1868 - Charles Foster appointed Superintendent of
Freedmen Bureau Schools - Florida.

January 1869 - George W. Gile - appointed Superintendent of
Freedmen Bureau Schools

November 30, 1870 Rev Alvord resigns.

1871 - Charles Beecher - appointed Florida State Superintendent of
Schools (brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe)

June, 1872 - Freedmen's Bureau terminated by an Act of Congress
Jonathan Gibbs
Florida Superintendent of Education
Department of the South
Inspectors Report of Schools
for the Freedmen's Bureau
Assorted Documents
Freedmen Aid Societies
Freedmens Bureau Assorted
Port Royal Experiment
St. Augustine and the Civil
33rd USCT
Thomas W. Cardozo
Mississippi Secretary of Education
James Redpath
Charleston Superintendent of Schools
Department of the South
Port Royal Experiment
USCT Bounties
Freedmen's Aid Societies
Freedmen's Bureau Assorted Documents
Freedmen's Bureau
Table of Contents
Freedmen Bureau Education Assorted
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