Levy Family
Moses Levy
and David Levy Yulee
                                         Moses Elias Levy (1781 - 1854)
Moses Elias Levy, was a wealthy and cultivated merchant, and David's mother, Hannah, was born on the Caribbean
island of St. Eustatius. David’s parents divorced when he was quite young, and he spent his early years with his mother
in St. Thomas.

Moses had changed  his last name of Yulee and took the last name Levy which was his grandfather's last name. Moses
would remain Levy for his whole life. His father was a Moslem and his mother a Jew. They would have four children.
Moses' religion became a sort of Jewish socialism where: "All our actions must be for the love of God only..."

By 1800 he had moved from Gibraltar to St. Thomas.

Moses Levy was drawn to Spanish Florida, where he purchased about 100,000 acres of land, including part of the
Arredondo grant, which included present-day Alachua County. His first plantations were Volutia eight miles above Lake
George on the
St. John's River and opposite this place Hope Hill. He created a utopian colony called New Pilgrimage for
persecuted Jews. He studied the Talmud and spoke out for abolition. (He wrote
A Plan for the Abolition of Slavery
London, 1828.) His plantation was known as Pilgrimage Plantation, a communitarian center near Micanopy. By 1823 he
had twenty-one European Jewish refugees. The plantation was mostly destroyed during the Second Seminole War.

In 1819, he sent David to stay with a guardian, Moses Myers, in Virginia, where the youngster attended Norfolk
Academy. Disappointed that his father wished him to go into trade rather than on to college with his schoolmates, David
sailed back to St. Thomas to visit his mother, who had remarried.

He spent time in New York, Philadelphia and Norfolk looking for financial support for his Florida settlement.

Moses Elias Levy, was, however, opposed to slavery and had a falling out with his son on that issue and his eventual
conversion to Christianity.

                      David Levy Yulee (June 12, 1810 - October 10, 1886)
Birth and Childhood
He was born David Levy in St. Thomas, West Indies, June 12, 1810; at the age of nine was sent to the United States to
Norfolk, Va. to attend a private school. At Harrow he met friends that he would keep for life. He was at the school for six
years and his older brother went to Harvard. He received a letter from his father stating that he would no longer
contribute to their support except as he would to "any other of God's creatures."

After a return to St Thomas he joined his older brother, Elias, in Florida and worked for a time at his father’s Pilgrimage
Plantation near Micanopy, where the main crop was sugar cane. The overseer took him in. He had elementary
knowledge, a little Latin, no Greek, and some French.

David Levy moved to Newnansville, the political center and county seat of Alachua County, cultivating relationships with
the local farmers, shopkeepers, and laborers as he served as Deputy Clerk for a year.

Drawn to the legal profession, he moved to St. Augustine to study law under the tutelage of Robert Raymond Reid who
later became the territorial governor of Florida. At the age of 22 in 1836, David Levy was admitted to the Florida Bar. His
first entry into politics was a clerk to the Territorial Legislature.

He served in the territorial militia, and in 1834 he attended a conference of  Seminole chiefs, including Osceola. He was
recognized by General Wily Thompson, United States Indian Agent, as “not only one of the most enlightened, but also
one of the most patriotic inhabitants of Florida.”

Legislative Council of Florida
In 1836, he was elected from St. John's county to the Legislative Council of Florida. His reputation as an orator and
arbiter had swept him into the Florida Legislative Council.

Territorial Senate
He won a seat in the territorial senate, where he became a staunch champion of statehood He was delegate to the State
constitutional convention in 1838; clerk to the Territorial legislature in 1841;

Territorial Delegate
He was elected as a Whig-Democrat to be a Territorial delegate to the Twenty-seventh and Twenty-eighth Congresses
(March 4, 1841-March 3, 1845). A major issue evolved as to his status as a U. S. citizen. (See full testimony
here.) He
was a Democrat winning the vote of the entire state for this position.

His first speech in Congress was over a major international incident with Great Britain occurs over the escape of slaves
from St. Augustine to the Bahamas (See Yulee's speech

July 21, 1841 Delegate Levy sought some answers on the Seminole War (See

July 29, 1841 Levy offers
H. R. 18 for recruitment of additional volunteers and  H. R. 19 on bounty for captured or killed
Indians Indians.

While serving as territorial delegate, Yulee obtained a railroad survey of Florida In 1842 the United States Congress
commissioned a survey of a route for a railroad between the St. Mary's River and Cedar Key in the Territory of Florida.
The Florida Legislature in 1853 chartered the Florida Railroad to build a rail line from Fernandina (near the mouth of
the St. Mary's River) to Tampa, Florida, with a branch to Cedar Key. The president and chief stockholder of the Florida
Railroad was then U.S. Senator David Levy Yulee. Yulee decided to complete the line to Cedar Key first, leaving the
connection to Tampa for later.

He chartered the Florida Railroad. Sought federal land grants, surveys, contracts and rights-of-way for his line. Yulee
instructed one Army engineer to write a report on how the railroad would be superior to a cross-peninsula canal. The
Army engineer would become the chief engineer of the Florida Railroad.

Seminole war legislation still played an important part of the agenda with
H. R. 606 that was to be used to pay off old war
claims. Levy was also spending time on the original treaty with Spain still trying to iron out its provisions
H. R. 726.

On November 11, 1845 David Levy purchased 24 slaves with seven thousand one hundred and eighty dollars in St.
Augustine. [Editor's Note: this is the largest purchase of slaves in St. Augustine at one time that I have a record.]

In 1845 the state named Levy County in David Levy's honor.

He was active in the Statehood movement for Florida. Florida needed some convincing, especially St. Augustine, as
they were looking for the creation of two states. (See
Circular Letter - Territory to State)

Name Change
In 1846, Levy officially changed his name to David Levy Yulee (adding his father's Sephardic surname). That year on
April 7  he married Nancy Christian Wickliffe (nicknamed The Wickliffe Madonna 1822-March 16, 1885), the daughter of
Charles A. Wickliffe, the former governor of Kentucky and Postmaster General under President John Tyler by Rev. J.
Farris Smith at Wickland, Ky. . His wife was Christian, and they raised their children in her faith. Their children were:
Margaret Creeps Yulee Read (1855-1933), Nannie Yulee Noble (1856-1928), Florida Anderson Yulee Neff (1859-1949)
and C. Wickliffe Yulee.

Jefferson Davis would be asked why Yulee changed his name. This is his reply:

Beauvoir, Harrison Co, Miss.,
August 10, 1882

Capt. H. H. Carver:
My Dear Sir---I have no positive information as to the reason why Mr. Yulee changed his name, or as to manner of doing so. there could
have been nothing secret in the transaction, and my close relations with him in the U. S. Senate, assures me that there could not have
been any discreditable motive for the change. Indeed you will readily perceive, that it was but a liberal metathesis.

There was a story that his grandfather changed his patronymic from Levy to Yulee, and that his father resumed the name of Levy, and that
the subject of your inquiry took the grandfathers name of Yulee. Of the truth of the story I have no reliable authority, for though intimate with
Senator Yulee we never conversed on the subject of his name. That there was nothing secret in connection with his change of name is
plain from the facts, that he first appeared by the name of David Levy, at the opening of the Twenty-eighth Congress, as the Territorial
delegate of Florida; in the Twenty-ninth Congress his name does not appear; and at the Thirtieth congress, he took his seat as the Senator
from the State of Florida by the name of David Levy Yulee.

I do not recollect that the U. S. Senate took any action on the matter of his change of name, nor can I see how the question could have been
entertained by that body. His election, as well as his name, were subjects which the State Legislature controlled, so far as the making of
the one, or the change of the other was concerned; that is, it was so, when we had States with the powers originally retained by them. If I
had possessed more exact information, my answer might have been shorter and more satisfactory.

Respectfully and truly your friend,
Jefferson Davis

On February 16, 1906 in the Ocala Banner a story was published on the way the name for David Levy became changed
to Yulee from James Harvey Phillips (this story is recorded in newspapers dating back to at least 1883 when he was still

He proposed to the young lady, his name being Levy at this time.

She, without hesitating, assured him she could not marry any man with a name something like Levy--he immediately informed her this was
a small obstacle and straightway went to the Florida legislature having his name changed to Yulee.

He proposed again. She told him she would not marry a man not a United States Senator.

He went to Tallahassee and the legislature sent him to the United States Senate.

The lady in the case belonged to a very prominent Kentucky family, and their children, two brilliant and charming daughters and a son, were
long known as ornaments of Florida society. C. Wickliffe Yulee was a writer.

The announcement was made in Washington by Senator Westcott of Florida on January 14, 1845. He announced to the
Senate that the name of his colleague, the Hon. David Levy, had been changed by an act of the Legislature of that
state, to David Levy Yulee, the latter being the patronymic of his family, dropped by his father, and now resumed by him.
On motion of Mr. Westcott, it was,

Ordered, that the Secretary of the Senate in future use the surname Yulee in the journals, as the name of the Senator from Florida,
heretofore called David Levy--his name having been changed by act of the Legislature of Florida, to that of David Levy Yulee.

Mr. Yulee and Mr. Ritchie. (The News, June 11, 1847)
In a late number of the N. Y. Herald, we have observed the following letter from the Washington correspondent of that Journal:

Washington, May 23, 1847.
Visiters to West Point.

We are informed that Hon. dixon H. Lewis, Senator from Alabama, and Hon. david L. Yulee, Senator from Florida, are appointed Visiters,
from their respective States, to West Point Academy, this year; and that Col. Miles, late of the gallant army of gen. Taylor, and Governor of
Monterey, has been requested by the Secretary of War to be one of the Board also.

You may expect this desputation of Visiters in New York about the second or third of June, and we are assured they will be treated in a style
commensurate with their distinguished merits, as citizens, and as servants of the government and of the people.

The appointment of Mr. Yulee shows that both himself and Father Ritchie are disposed to bury the hatchet and smoke the "pipe of peace"
touching the resolutions for the expulsion of the editor of the Union from the floor of the Senate; provided, always, that this concession is not
to be construed into a disposition to compromise with Mr. Calhoun upon the subject of those resolutions.   Canales.

The most amusing feature of the above letter, is the oracular manner in which the writer speaks of the relations of the Government, of Mr.
Calhoun, of Mr. Yulee, and of Mr. Ritchie, as dependent upon this simple appointment of visitor to West Point. But we presume it was
merely intended for effect and to intimate vast knowledge where none existed. In our opinion this letter merely shows what is the fact, that
Mr. Yulee's relations with the government have always been friendly, and that they continue unchanged. We apprehend that Government did
not deem it necessary to consult "Father Ritchie," in the matter, and are not inclined to believe that it is in the habit of doing so. The Whig
journals and Abolitionist journals have endeavored to make it appear that Mr. Calhoun is no opposition to the Administration, and that his
friends are disposed to exhibit equal hostility. This is a great error. It is a presumption not warranted by facts. Mr. Calhoun and his friends
have never opposed the administration. Mr. Calhoun and Mr. Polk merely differ upon one or two points connected with the Foreign relations
of the country.-- The issues between them involve no difference in principle, but only in policy, and imply no necessary hostility in feeling, but
only opposition of opinion upon points open to honest variety of sentiment between Statesmen of the same general creed.

We are disposed to doubt very much whether President P9olk, is at all inclined to mingle or sympathize with the trumpery predilections,
quarrels, or prejudices of the editor of the Union, and the character of Mr. Calhous is too well known for any one to suppose for a moment
that he cares a straw what estimate they have formed or are disposed to circulate concerning him--- Mr. Ritchie's quarrels are his own; and
however desirous he may be to have himself backed by the administration, he has learned by this time, that Mr. Polk will not aid him in his
schemes for bullying Senators into submission.---Much less, do we believe, that Mr. Ritchie's personal feelings are consulted in regard to
any appointment, or that the relations of any Statesman with Government are to be derived from his private relations with the Editor of the

He did not seek renomination, having become a candidate for the Senate; upon the admission of Florida as a State into
the Union the legislature elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate and served from July 1, 1845, to March 3,
1851. He was the first Jew elected to the Senate (no Judah P. Benjamin does not have this honor). He was elected along
with James D. Westcott as Democrats over George Hernandez and Jackson Morton, Whigs.

He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection.  More controversy.....David Yulee received a clear majority of votes
but was excluded because of blank votes. The Senate declared that there was no election. On the subsequent ballot
Stephen R. Mallory was elected. This was a controversy because Senator Sumner was elected at the same time without
counting the blank votes.

He was given an opportunity to address the Senate, and with Edwin M. Staton as his counsel, Yulee's argument was that
only the Florida legislature could understand the complexities of an election resolution passed in 1845. The Senate
unanimously voted to reject Yulee's claim to the seat and recognized Mallory as the duly elected Florida senator.  On
March 18, 1853, the Senate voted to grant Yulee per diem and mileage for the period when he was contesting the seat.

The issue of slavery was pushing toward the destruction of the country. In 1848 he the Senate in the Wilmot Proviso with
a resolution that the territories belonged equally to the citizens of all the states and that therefore any citizen might take
into them his slave poverty. This doctrine was affirmed in the
Dred Scott decision. In 1849 he wrote John Calhoun that :
"We must have security and fireside peace."  If a Constitutional amendment could not be made "the best policy to take
steps at once for separation."

He was chairman, Committee on Private Land Claims (Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Congresses), Committee on Naval
Affairs (Thirty-first Congress);

In 1851 Yulee founded a 5,000-acre sugar cane plantation,along the Homosassa River. The remains of his plantation,
which was destroyed during the Civil War, are found at the Yulee Sugar Mill Ruins State Historic Site. He is credited with
cultivating a variety of sweet oranges on his plantation. This variety is appropriately named the Homosassa Orange.

Yulee devoted his time to his 5,100-acre plantation he named Margarita. He hoped to become a leading merchant in
growing sugar cane and manufacturing sugar. His plantation was located on Tiger Tail Island on the Homosassa River,
which encompassed almost 30,000 acres, 5,000 of which were under cultivation. Yulee employed 80 slaves on his

The Florida Railroad
While living with his family in Fernandina, Yulee began to develop a railroad across Florida. He had planned since 1837
to build a state-owned system. He became the first Southerner to use state grants under the Florida Internal
Improvement Act of 1855, passed to encourage the development of infrastructure. He made extensive use of the act to
secure federal and state land grants "as a basis of credit" to acquire land and build railroad networks. Of this company,
David L. Yulee was President, George W. Call, Secretary and Treasurer, and Martin L. Smith, Chief Engineer. The
principal office of the company was at Fernandina. The Florida Rail Road enjoyed a Federal land grant of 290,183.28
acres, and a Florida grant of 505,144.14 acres.

Issuing public stock, Yulee chartered the Florida Railroad in 1853. He planned its eastern and western terminals at deep-
water ports, Fernandina on Amelia Island on the Atlantic side, and Cedar Key on the Gulf of Mexico, to provide for
connection to ocean-going shipping. His company began construction in 1855.

Before the railroad was completed Yulee got involved in a political problem with Madison S. Perry the governor. Perry
wanted the railroad to take a slight detour and go by Little Hatchet Creek (by Perry's plantation). Yulee refused. This
was the beginning of the war of Little Hatchet Creek with the Governor refusing to sign the bonds for the railroad.

On March 1, 1861, the first train pulled by old second-hand eight-wheeler locomotive named Abner McGehee arrived
from the east in Cedar Key, just weeks before the beginning of the Civil War. The railroad had special steamers, the
mail contract between New York and New Orleans and Fernandina was a flourishing port town.

He was again elected to the United States Senate in January 1855 and served from March 4, 1855, until his withdrawal
January 21, 1861; chairman, Committee on Post Office and Post Roads (Thirty-fifth and Thirty-sixth Congresses);

Civil War
Yulee had endorsed Douglas for president in 1856 and again in 1860. Even after the convention walkout of the
Southern delegation he urged Florida to support Douglass and the Baltimore convention (the adjourned Charleston
convention). However in the end Senator Yulee was "surprised and grieved" and could not support Douglass because
Douglass repudiated the right of secession.

His brother was an early officer in the Washington Mounted Rifles (1st Virginia Cavalry) which became part of
Confederate legend with John S. Mosby and J. E. B. Stuart.

Yule gets military information as senator from the U. S. government (from his brother-in-law to be specific and later this
will be the man who trys to charge him with high treason):

SENATE CHAMBER, January 2, 1861.
SIR: We respectfully request you to inform us what is the numerical force of the troops now in garrison at the various posts in the State of
Florida, and the amount of arms, heavy and small, and ammunition, fixed and loose, at the various forts and arsenals in that State.*

Respectfully, your obedient servants,


Washington, D. C.,
January 3, 1861.
Hon. J. HOLT, Secretary of War:
SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the reference to this office of a letter from the honorables Messrs. Yulee and Mallory, of the Senate,
dated 2d instant, and, in compliance with their request, to report that there is only one arsenal in the State of Florida, and that is one of
deposit only. It is called Apalachicola Arsenal, and is situated near the town of Chattahoochee, at the junction of the Flint and
Chattahoochee Rivers.* The arms, ammunition, &c., now at that post, are one 6-pounder iron gun and carriage, with 326 shot and
canisters for the same, 57 flintlock muskets, 5,122 pounds of powder, 173,476 cartridges for small-arms, and a small quantity of different
kinds, of accouterments.

The ordnance and ordnance stores at the other military posts in Florida are as follows:

At Fort Barrancas.–Forty-four sea-coast and garrison cannon and 43 carriages, viz: Thirteen 8-inch columbiads and howitzers; two 10-inch
mortars, and eleven 32, ten 24, five 18, and three 19-pounder guns; 3,152 projectiles for the same; 20,244 pounds of powder, and 2,966
cartridge bags.

At Barrancas Barracks.–A field battery, consisting of four 6-pounder guns and two 12-pounder howitzers, with carriages, and six caissons,
with 300 projectiles and 270 cartridge bags for the same.

At Fort Pickens.–Two hundred and one sea-coast and garrison cannon, viz: Four 10-inch columbiads and four 10-inch mortars, fifty 8-inch
and flanking howitzers, and two 42, sixty-two 32, fifty-nine 24, six 18, and fourteen 12 pounder guns, and 128 carriages for the same; also,
4,974 projectiles of all kinds; 3,195 grape-shot, loose; 500 24-pounder stands canister shot; 12,712 pounds of powder, and 1,728 cartridge

At Fort Taylor.–Sixty sea-coast and garrison cannon, viz: Fifty 8-inch columbiads and ten 24-inch flanking howitzers, with caissons, and four
12-pounder field howitzers, mounted; 4,530 projectiles, suited to {p.350} the guns; 34,459 pounds of powder; 2,826 cartridge bags; 962
priming tubes, and 759 cartridges for small arms.

At Fort McRee.–One hundred and twenty-five sea-coast and garrison cannon, including three 10-inch and twelve 8-inch columbiads; twenty-
two 42, twenty-four 32, and sixty-four 24 pounder guns, with 64 gun carriages; 9,026 projectiles, and 1,258 stands of grape and canister,
and 19 298 pounds of powder.

At Key West Barracks.–For 6-pounder field guns and carriages; 1,101 rounds of shot and other ammunition for the same; 171 pounds of
powder; 158 cartridge bags; 538 priming tubes; 7 rifles, and 2,000 rifle cartridges.

At Fort Marion.–Six field batteries, of four 6-pounder guns and two 12-pounder howitzers, and twenty sea-coast and garrison cannon, viz:
Four 8-inch howitzers and sixteen 32-pounder guns; also, six 6-pounder old iron guns, and 31 foreign guns of various calibers; 2,021
projectiles; 330 rounds of fixed ammunition; 873 priming tubes, and 931 pounds of powder. Also, 110 muskets, 103 rifles, 118 Hall’s
carbines, 98 pistols, 147,720 cartridges for small-arms, and 15,000 percussion caps.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Captain of Ordnance

Six weeks later, on April 12, the Civil War began with the battle at Ft. Sumter. Earlier that year, on January 11, 1861,
when it became evident that secession and war were inevitable, Yulee, while still a U.S. Senator, wrote to Joseph
Finegan in Fernandina proposing that a confederation of southern states be formed as soon as possible. This letter was
discovered when General Wright took possession of Finegan's house in Fernandina after the city's capture by the U. S.
Navy.  This would be the basis for the charge of treason that he wrote this as a U. S. Senator before resigning (besides
Yulee's very vocal behavior throughout the war). While still in Washington the state of Florida appointed Senators Yulee
and Mallory as commissioners to deal with the national government. In early February, Yulee departed Washington for
Fernandina. Yulee and Mallory has withdrawn from the Senate on the same day as Jefferson Davis.(See his

The first letter was sent from Washington on
January 5, 1861.
Joseph Finegan, Esq., or Col. Geo. W. Call (Tallahassee, Fla.):

My Dear Sir: the immediately important thing to be done is the occupation of the forts and arsenal in Florida. The naval station and forts at
Pensacola are first in consequence. For this a force is necessary. I have conversed with Mr. Toombs upon the subject. He will start this
week for Georgia, and says if the convention of sov'y (sovereignty) will ask Governor Brown, of Georgia, for a force he will immediately send
on sufficient force and take the navy yard and forts. The occupation of the navy yard will give us a good supply of ordinance and make the
capture of the forts easier. Major Chase built the forts and will know all about them. Lose no time, for, my opinion is, troops will be very soon
dispatched to re-enforce and strengthen the forts in Florida. The arsenal at Chattahoochee should be looked to, and that at once to prevent
removal of arms.

I think that by 4th March all the Southern States will be out, except perhaps Kentucky and Missouri, and they will soon have to follow.

What is advisable is the earliest possible organization of a Southern Confederacy and of a Southern Army. The North is rapidly
consolidating against us upon the plan of force. A strong Government, as eight States will make, promptly organized, and a strong Army,
with Jeff. Davis for General-in-Chief, will bring them to a reasonable sense of the gravity of the crisis.

Have a Southern Government as soon as possible, adopting the present Federal Constitution from the time, and a Southern Army. I repeat
this because it is the important policy.

Virginia, Maryland, and Tennessee are rapidly coming up to the work.

God speed you.

I shall give the enemy a shot next week before retiring. I say enemy! Yes, I am theirs, and they are mine. I am willing to be their masters, but
not their brothers.

Yours, in haste,

D. L. Yulee.

Lose no time about the navy-yard and forts at Pensacola.

The letter was addressed to Joseph Finegan, Sovereignty Convention, Tallahassee (sent by franked mail) :
Washington, January 7, 1861

My Dear Sir:
On the other side is a copy of resolutions adopted at a consultation of Senators from the seceding States, in which Georgia, Alabama,
Louisiana, Arkansas, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida were present. The idea of the meeting was, that the States should go out at once, and
provide for the early organization of a Confederate government, not later than the 15th of February. This time is allowed to enable Louisiana
and Texas to participate. It seemed to be the opinion, if we left here, force, loan, and volunteer bills might be passed, which would put Mr.
Lincoln in immediate condition for hostilities, whereas, by remaining in our places until the 4th of March, it is thought we can keep Mr.
Buchanan's hands tied, and disable the Republicans from effecting any legislation which will strengthen the hands of the incoming
Administration. In haste, yours truly,
D. L. Yulee

Resolutions accompanying Senator Yulee's letter Note: the copy of these resolutions forwarded by Senator Mallory
January 6, 1861, to the president of the Florida Convention, shows that they were adopted on the 5th of that month, and
that they were signed by Messrs. Davis and Brown, of Mississippi; Hemphill and Wigfall, of Texas; Slidell and Benjamin,
of Louisiana; Iverson and Toombs, of Georgia; Johnson, of Arkansas; Clay, of Alabama; and Yulee and Mallory, of

Resolved, 1. That is our opinion each of the Southern States should, as soon as may be, secede from the Union.

Resolved, 2. That provision should be made for a convention to organize a Confederacy of the seceding States, the convention to meet not
later than the 15th of February, at the city of Montgomery, in the State of Alabama.

Resolved, That in view of the hostile legislation that is threatened against the seceding States, and which may be consummated before the
4th of March, we ask instructions whether the delegations are to remain in Congress until that date for the purpose of defeating such

Resolved, That a committee be and are hereby appointed, consisting of Messrs. Davis, Slidell, and Mallory, to carry out the objects of this

On January 11, Yulee responds to the Governor about the session of Florida.

Washington, January 11, 1861,
His Excellency M.S.Perry,
Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Fla.:

Your telegram received. I acknowledge with pride the full sovereignty of my State.

D. L. Yulee.

January 15, 1861
His Excellency M. S. Perry,
Governor of Florida, Tallahassee:

We have ceased participation in the proceedings of Senate, and only await receipt of authenticated ordinance to retire formally.
D. L. Yulee
S. R. Mallory

January 20, 1861
He was still in Washington meeting with the other former Southern Senators.

Governor. M. S. Perry

The Southern Senators all agree that no assault on Fort Pickens should be made; that the fort is not worth one drop of blood at this time,
and desire us to invoke you to prevent bloodshed. First get the Southern Government in operation. The same advice has been given as to
Charleston, and will no doubt be adopted there.

S. R. Mallory.
D. L. Yulee

January 28, 1861
S. R. Mallory,
George S. Hawkins,
A. E. Maxwell,

The Brooklyn is bound to Pensacola. Two companies on board.
D. L. Yulee.

Yulee was not a member of the Confederate Congress during the Civil War. Confederate Provisional Congress
Delegates 1861-1862 were James B. Owens, James Patton Anderson, John Pease Sanderson, James Byeram Owens,
and George Taliaferro Ward The senators from Florida were James McNair Baker and Augustus Emmett Maxwell. The
Representatives from Florida were: James Baird Deskins, Robert Benjamin Hilton, John Marshall Martin, Samuel St.
George Rogers, and George Taliaferro Ward

He had already given his intention to withdraw from public life and devote himself to the development of Florida before
the election of Lincoln. He advised the Confederate government from Florida. By October of 1861 he was making
recommendations to Secretary of War Benjamin:

October  21, 1861.
Secretary of War.
MY DEAR SIR: The following are the only points that occur to me to suggest:

1. That the special attention of General Trapier be directed to such points in his department as the governor may consider to be of chief
military importance.

2. That he should be instructed to arrange with the governor for obtaining the ten companies in the speediest manner possible, and, in
order to avoid delay in bringing the post at Fernandina under better command, he should be authorized to appoint a colonel to take
command of the companies as they are mustered, unless the Department is prepared to designate one at once for the command.

3. That he should be authorized to make such alterations in the number and organization of the forces employed in Florida as may in his
judgment be advisable; for which purpose he might be authorized to muster or discharge troops according to exigency, keeping the
Department advised of his acts.

4. It would also be well to authorize him, if he deems it advisable, to arrange with the Cuban Telegraph Company for the surrender of the
line between Savannah and Florida to the Confederate States during the war.

5. If it requires special authority to enable him to do so, he might be authorized to employ and attach to each post a capable drill officer.

Respectfully, yours,

January 16, 1862
Fernandina, January 16, 1862
Hon. J. P. Benjamin,
Secretary of War:

My Dear Sir: Intelligence of a foray on cedar Keys. Not particulars enough to know if for occupation. Hope not. Am on my way down with a
train to take off the women and children. Captain McBlair sent for two 10-inch columbiads for batteries on this side. Please send two more
10-inch for battery on Cumberland Island (the Georgia side). It is very important. General Mercer desires it and General Lee approves.
Please give them. It is bad in operation that General Lee's command does not cover Middle as well as East Florida. It places part of
General Trapier's department out of Lee's command, and thus produces a disjunction of the department, in part of which General Trapier is
not subject to his command while in another part he is. Do give general Lee an officer of his choice to be located here. General Trapier has
not been here for over three weeks. His headquarters is at Tallahassee.

In great haste, yours, very truly,
D. L. Yulee

On March 3, 1862, Yulee and his family were the last to leave Amelia Island. The USS Ottawa shelled the retreating train
as it passed over the bridge to the mainland. Witnesses said that the Yulees waved their handkerchiefs at the pursuing
Union forces but that wasn't the Union story.

On March 8, 1862 Yulee was in Gainesville at a meeting of Alachua citizens and other counties about the situation in
Florida. He moved the following resolution which passed unanimously:

Resolved, That we hereby appoint Maj. J. B. Bailey and Edward Haile to proceed immediately to Richmond, Va., and there to impress in the
strongest language upon the Government of the Confederate States the great importance of keeping in East Florida an army as a nucleus
around which our citizens may rally for the defense of our homes and firesides.

Resolved further, That said delegates are hereby requested and instructed to call upon and confer with General Lee, and urge him to
permit the troops now in East Florida to remain for its defense until the Department at Richmond be apprised of our situation and further
orders therefrom had.

This meeting also requested General Lee to transfer General J. H. Trapier to some other point, "as it is universally
admitted that from some apparent incapacity or want of industry the people have lost confidence in him..."

Yulee had moved his family to a sugar plantation called Homosassa (Little Pepper). He would remain there till the end of
the war occasionally going to Gainesville. The offices of the Florida Railroad were located there and he was president.
The U. S. army attempted several times to capture him.

During the war, Federals, believing Yulee to be at Margarita, burned the property to the ground. Yulee was in
Gainesville, and his wife and children were visiting friends in Ocala. After the destruction of Margarita, the family moved
farther inland to another Yulee holding in Archer

The fire started at Margarita when the U. S. Navy burned a building where the rebel flag was flying. James J. Russell,
Acting Master, of the
Ariel  reported that: "the flames spreading rapidly, communicated themselves to Mr. Yulee's
residence, and it was burned to the ground." The Prize Commissioner R. W. Welch reported that: " they had taken a
large quantity of letters from the house...and they also had the pleasure to see the house burned to the ground."

Yulee became estranged from Jefferson Davis over the proposal to tear up the tracks of the Florida Railroad and use
them in Georgia. Yulee fought through the Confederate Secretary of War.  By the end of the war Yulee believed
(falsely) that Davis had sanctioned a warrant for Yulee's arrest.

The U. S. Army and Navy had occupied Fernandina and Cedar Keys had been attacked and rolling stock and terminal

Special Orders, No. 90.
Hdqrs. Provisional Forces,
Dept. of Middle and East Florida,
March 10, 1862.

Captain Buckman, First Florida Battalion, with his company is hereby charged with the special duty of removing the iron from the track of the
Florida Railroad and the Jacksonville Railroad as the trains on the latter shall cease running. The iron will be transported to the junction of
the Tallahassee Railroad and the proposed Georgia connection, the cross-ties, &c., burnt. Captain Hickman, assistant quartermaster, will
furnish the transportation.

By order of General Trapier:

R. H. Anderson,
Major and Assistant Adjutant-General.

Executive Department
March 13, 1862.
Resolution of Executive Council Passed March 4, 1862.
Resolved, That the Governor be authorized to have taken up such portions of the railroad iron on the Florida Railroad, when the troops shall
have been removed from Fernandina, as the public security demands, and remove the same to a place of safety.
Adopted. M. D. Papy, Wiggins, and Simpkins voted yea.
A true copy from the minutes. Attest.
E. Barnard,
Private Secretary of His Excellency John Milton.

E. Houstoun, Esq.:
General Trapier having ordered the iron taken up from Fernandina to Baldwin, you are requested to send the trains necessary to assist in
moving the rails as they are taken up to a place of safety beyond the reach of the enemy. General Trapier has authority from the
Government. John Milton,
Governor of Florida.
By E. Barnard,
Private Secretary to his Excellency.

Special Orders, No. 108
Hdqrs. Provisional Forces,
Dept. of Middle and East Florida,
March 18, 1862

Special Orders, No. 90, is hereby modified as follows: The iron from the Florida Railroad will not be taken up south of Callahan, and all the
iron removed from this road will be placed at Baldwin. The iron from the Jacksonville road will be placed at Lake City.
By order of General Trapier:

R. H. Anderson,
Major and Assistant Adjutant-General

Note.---The foregoing order is in progress of execution by Captain Lesley, substituted for Captain Buckman, to whom Order No. 90 was

March 24, 1862

Brig. Gen. Richard F. Floyd:

Sir: The order issued by General Lee, which was believed to be to evacuate East, South, and Middle Florida, has been countermanded---
revoked. The President and Secretary of War will afford all possible facilities for the defense of Florida, and to recover positions which are
important to general defense. I issue a proclamation immediately making known this fact--to counteract any injury from your proclamation
of the 19ths instant. The arms and ammunition which may be brought from Smyrna, protect for violent or unlawful seizure. You are
authorized to arm all the companies which may be at Camp Lee, near Gainesville, for Confederate service during the war, with Enfield
rifles, or other choice weapons, and such a proportion of ammunition and caps, blankets and shoes as may be necessary, taking from the
captains of companies bond and security to redeliver the rifles and other arms upon the demand of the Governor and commander-in-chief
of Florida to any one authorized by him to receive them. You can retain 1,000 Enfield rifles and necessary fixed ammunition at Lake City, or
other place you may select in East Florida, to be distributed among those who may be in military service under your command. In all cases
take bonad and security for the redelivery of the arms upon the demand of the Governor and commander-in-chief. The iron on such parts of
the Florida Railroad and the road leading from Jacksonville to Baldwin as may be necessary to prevent the enemy's use of either road to
the injury of the State, have removed to Lake City. Place under arrest any who attempt or offer to attempt to prevent if, and if necessary
inform me and I will proclaim martial law in East Florida forthwith. After taking for use the arms and ammunition mentioned forward or have
forwarded to Tallahassee all the balance of arms, munitions of war, blankets, shoes, &c.

John Milton
Governor and Commander-in-Chief.

Confederate States of America, War Department,
April 3, 1862.

His Excellency John Milton,
Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Fla.:

Sir: I have been informed that the line of railroad connecting Cedar Keys and Fernandina is now comparatively valueless to the
Confederacy in consequence of both termini of the road being in possession of the enemy. Under these circumstances I should be
pleased to receive your views of the expediency of removing the iron and telegraph wire, and if you concur with me in opinion I will direct the
general commanding in Florida to have the rails and wire removed.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
G. W. Randolph

April 12, 1862
By the influence of Hon. David L. Yulee and General Joseph Finegan, an injunction was obtained from a circuit judge to arrest the work.
Messrs. Yulee and Finegan have endeavored to interpose many obstacles.
John Milton

Hdqrs. Dept of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida,
Charleston, S. C.,
July 6, 1863.
His Excellency John Milton
Governor, Tallahassee, Fla:

Sir: Your favor of the 29th ultimo has been received, enclosing your correspondence with Brigadier-General Finegan and Hon. D. L. Yulee
relative to the removal of the iron from parts of the Florida Railroad and its appropriation for other purposes. After a careful perusal of the
correspondence, which I have enclosed to the War Department for its information and consideration, I can but express my unqualified
approval of the position you have assumed--that the connection of the Albany and Gulf Railroad with the Pensacola and Georgia Railroad,
and the prolongation of the latter to the Chattahoochess--are indispensable to the proper defense of the State of Florida. Where the
required iron should come from is a question that the State and Confederate governments alone are competent to decide, but your views
on the subject appear to me to be conclusive.

Hoping that a spirit of pure patriotism will open the eyes of all concerned to the necessity of prompt action in measures so vitally important
to the safety of your gallant State,

I remain, with high consideration, your obedient servant,
G. T. Beauregard,
General, Commanding.

On July 20, 1863 the Secretary of War, James A. Seddon, received a letter from Florida's governor in part stating:

The correspondence between the Hon. David L. Yulee, the president of the Florida Railroad Company, and myself has been submitted to
your consideration, and in connection with it I now submit copies of a letter expressive of the views of your predecessor, the Hon. G. W.
Randolph; an order of Brigadier-General Trapier; the proceedings of the late Executive Council, and of the trustees of the board of internal
improvement fund in relation to the removal of the iron from parts of that road. The views of Brigadier-General Trapier and of Brigadier-
General Cobb are on file in your office, and herewith I hand you those of General Beauregard. I know of no man reasonably claiming to be
an officer of military experience, or to have received a military education, who has expressed an opinion at variance with the position
maintained by me that the connection of the two railroads alluded to, and the extension of the Pensacola and Georgia Railroad to
Chattahoochee, are necessary to the defense of the State. Can the Confederate Government obtain the iron necessary from any other
source than parts of the Florida Railroad? Is not the iron on the portions of the track of that road alluded to in the correspondence liable to
be seized and destroyed, or used for the subjugation of that portion of the State, unless the troops in East Florida can be largely re-
enforced? These are matters worthy of consideration and prompt action. It is true that Brigadier-General Finegan agrees with Mr. Yulee.
The simple question is, Shall what is necessary to the defense of Florida be ordered agreeably to the views expressed by those highest in
authority, and to whom the welfare of the State has been confided, or shall the State be left defenseless in compliment to Mr. Yulee's and
General Finegan's opinions?

I have the honor to be, respectfully,
John Milton,
Governor of Florida"

In May 1864 his house in Fernandina was advertised by Joseph Remington, U. S. Marshall as sequestrated property.
His property, Gen. Joseph Finegan, A. H. Cole, Jacob Cohen, Dr. D. P. Beatty, Col. H. Timanus, Frederick Clark, Jos E.
Broome, Daniel Calehan and Capt. Felix Livingston had their properties put up in this tax sale.

By 1864 the United States army had began to conclude that Yulee may have a roll to play in ending the war. U. S. Army
Brigadier General John P Hatch: "I have directed Mr. Yulee to be arrested and brought here if possible. He is one of
those beyond the pale of proclamation, but is said to be hostile to Davis, and might be induced to head a movement for
a reconstruction if the President would pardon him. I thought it worth trying for. Refugees continue to flock in. We will
soon have a large portion of the people of Florida east of the Saint John's River."

Conflicts with Confederate Authorities
The first problem occurred after the 1863 harvest. Yulee sold sugar to the city of Savannah at a specified price.
Confederate authorities seized the product, offering a lesser compensation. Yulee saying that he no longer owned the
sugar refused the Confederate offer. Savannah did the same. The sugar was eventually delivered to the CSA but the
case for reimbursement went to the Florida Supreme Court. The court used the occasion to declare the right of state
courts to regulate property disputes and gave neither side the price they wanted but ruled that the price was the price at
the delivery of the sugar.

In June the war to remove the iron rails and other pieces of the Florida Railroad heated up. With the work under way
Yulee took to the courts to stop the Confederate Army from removing the rails. (See
Fight between Florida Judiciary and
CSA over Florida Railroad.)

However even in at the end of July Yulee was still giving advice to President Davis:

Gainesville, July 31, 1864.
President Davis:

My Dear Sir: The present invasion of Florida threatens, I think, the loss of the portion east of the Suwannee. It ought not to be lost if
avoidable. Much force you cannot spare from the main points, but much force is not necessary. I think two good regiments, with the small
force now here and the aid which a rally of our people can furnish, will answer. The effective force here is not now exceeding 800, I believe.
The value of the peninsula is in the large supply of meats (beef and pork) which it supplies, and in its being the only region from which
sugar and molasses are now furnished. Its extensive sea-coast of about 1,000 miles may become of great importance if the war is
protracted in affording facilities for importations of necessary army supplies, and for its fisheries and salt. I the present pressure upon your
mind I confine myself to a very brief demand upon your attention, suggesting only in a few words what may deserve your notice.

With accustomed good wishes, I am, most truly, yours,
D. L. Yulee

August 9, 1864

Secretary of War, for attention and communication with General Jones, commanding department. J. D.

Yulee did not surrender nor was he captured during the war. When the war was over the arrest order for him came after
Yulee assisted in the flight of Jefferson Davis’s baggage train. (See
David Yulee's statement about the baggage)

Headquarters Department of the South,
Hilton Head, S. C.,
May 20, 1865

Brig. Gen. I. Vogdes,
Commanding District of Florida:

General: The major general commanding directs that you arrest immediately David L. Yulee, of Florida, and hold him in Jacksonville
subject to his orders.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Garth W. James
Captain and Aide-de-Camp

Within the week Yulee was arrested

"Headquarters District of Florida,
Fourth Separate Brigade, Dept. of the South,
Jacksonville, Fla.
, May 27, 1865.

Maj. W. L. M. Burger,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the South:

Major: I have the honor to report that in conformity with instructions received from department headquarters, I have caused Mr. Yulee to be
arrested and brought to Jacksonville. He is now confined under guard according to your orders. Is it the intention of the general
commanding to have him confined, or may I admit him to parole? If the former, how strictly should he be confined? I do not think that there
need be any apprehension of his attempting to escape, and unless the general commanding desires otherwise he might safely be
admitted to parole pending appearance of the charges against him. I shall not take any steps in so admitting him until I can receive the
instructions from the commanding general..... I. Vodges, Brigadier-General of Volunteers."

Yet no orders had come with what to do with him.

Headquarters Department of the South
Hilton Head, S. C.,
June 1, 1865

Brig. Gen. L. Thomas,
Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:                

General: I have the honor to state that ex-U.S. Senator David L. Yulee, of Florida, is under arrest at Jacksonville by my orders. Please
instruct me as to what disposition you wish made of him; whether he shall be sent to Washington, retained in arrest here, or released.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Q. A. Gillmore,
Major-General, Commanding

Headquarters Department of the South,
Hilton Head, S. C.,
June 3, 1865

Brig. Gen. I. Vogdes,
Commanding District of Florida, Jacksonville, Fla.:
General: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 27th ultimo in regard to the arrest of Mr. Yulee, the limits
of Jacksonville, on his parole. No more troops of any kin can be sent to Florida at present. The command now there must be scattered over
all through the interior of the State from Tallahassee east, except for the Gulf counties.

Very Respectfully, your obedient servant.

W. L. M. Burger,
Assistant Adjutant-General

Finally the order came to send him to Fort Pulaski in Georgia:

Headquarters Department of the South
Hilton Head, S. C.,
June 5, 1865.

Brig. Gen I. Vodges,
Commanding District of Florida, Jacksonville, Fla.:

Brig. Gen. I. Vodges
Commanding District of Florida, Jacksonville, Fla.:

General: The major-general commanding directs that you send Mr. Yulee at once to Fort Pulaski under a proper guard, and turn him over to
the officer commanding that fort for safe-keeping. The major-general commanding directs that you send Mr. Yulee at once to Fort Pulaski
under a proper guard, and turn him over to the officer commanding that for safe-keeping. The major-general commanding directs that you
cause the arrest, if he can be found. of Mr. A. K. Allison, styling himself acting governor of Florida, and send him also to Fort Pulaski, under
proper guard, for safe-keeping, turning him over to the officer commanding that fort. You will please report your action in such case.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W.L. M. Burger,
Assistant Adjutant-General

As the war ground to a halt Levy was sent as part of a Florida delegation to petition for readmission into the Union, but
was arrested in Gainesville, Florida, and imprisoned at Fort Pulaski, Georgia. Due to his support of the Confederacy,
was kept a prisoner at Fort Pulaski in 1865. He was held with Mississippi Governor Charles Clark; Alabama ex-Governor
Andrew Moore; Secretary of State Robert M. T. Hunter, Secretary of the Treasury George Trenholm, Secretary of War
James Seddon and former United States Supreme Court Justice and Confederate Assistant Secretary of War, John A.
Campbell. Yulee's wife and children went north to Washington. She stayed with her brother-in-law, Judge Merrick in
Maryland. Her father, Governor Wickliffe saw the U. S. Attorney General and other people petitioned different members
of the cabinet and President Johnson.

Adjutant-General's Office, June 8, 1865.
Maj. Gen. Q. A. Gillmore, U. S. Volunteers,
Department of the South, Hilton Head, S. C.:

In reply to your report of the capture of Mr. Yulee the President directs that he be confined until further orders in Fort Pulaski. Acknowledge

E. D. Townsend,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

Headquarters District of Florida,
Fourth Separate Brigade, Dept of the South,
Jacksonville, Fla.,
June 18, 1865

Maj. W. L. M. Burger,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the South:

Major: I have the honor to report, in accordance with instructions from department headquarters, that D. L. Yulee and A. K. Allison, of Florida,
have been sent under the charge of Captain Bryant, Thirty-fourth U. S. Colored Troops, to Fort Pulaski, Ga.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
I. Vogdes,
Brigadier-general of Volunteers, Commanding.

June 24, 1865
His Excellency Andrew Johnson
President of the United States:

Availing myself of the permission contained in the proclamation of the 29th of May, 1865, I respectfully present this my special application
for amnesty. I find myself a prisoner in Fort Pulaski by order, it is said, of the War Department. Not having been connected with the civil or
military action of the Confederate Government, but during all the course of the late struggle living in the retirement of private life, my arrest
could not, of course, be owing to any cause arising out of the events of that unfortunate conflict. I am left, therefore, to presume it  was owing
to the fact that I left my seat in the Senate when the State of Florida seceded. If so be the case, I beg leave to submit that I could not
honorably have done otherwise.

A convention of the people of Florida had by a vote of sixty-two, out of a body of sixty-nine members, passed an ordinance withdrawing the
State from the Union, and by the order of that convention the delegation of the State in Congress were expressly and officially instructed,
through their president, to retire from their seats and return to the State. This mandate, in the view I had ever held of my relations to the
State, was imperative upon me. Upon the theory of the Union entertained by the political school to which I had always from youth adhered,
the action of my State in her sovereign capacity was conclusive upon all her citizens, and especially upon those who held a representative
relation to her. In this belief, honestly held, I respectfully submit that I could not consistently have declined obedience. Nor in my case would
a contest with my State, had I desired to undertake it, have availed anything, as my term would have closed by its own limitation in a few
weeks afterward, viz, on the 4th of March, 1861.

I can truly say I did not "leave my seat in the Congress of the United States to aid the rebellion." This is sufficiently proven by the
circumstance that I did not, in fact, aid it, having taken no part in the formation nor conduct of the Confederate organization. I withdrew not in
the spirit of rebellion, nor with the expectation of a conflict of force, but solely, as before said, from the motive of obedience to the will of my
State, and in the sincere expectation and hope of a peaceful solution of the unhappy issue by an ultimate convention of the States or some
other mode of arrangement between them. That this expectation and hope of a peaceful solution of the issue raised by secession might
reasonably at that time have been indulged independently of the opinions I personally held, will be shown, I think, by reference to the
annual message of the President delivered upon the assembling of Congress in December, 1860, and the official opinion of the Attorney-
General of the preceding month (November 20), which opinions were not disputed nor condemned by any action of the Congress to which
they were addressed. I have been opposed to the division in the Democratic State convention of Florida in a letter read to that body against
sending delegates to the Richmond convention. I looked to a constitutional convention of all the States as the preferable and proper mode
of adjusting the differences which had grown up between the sections, and so indicated in a brief letter written during the summer of 1860,
which was published.

I did not advise nor stimulate secession of the State, considering that in so responsible a step each citizen should act according to his own
unbiased judgment. But I owe it to a proper frankness to add that I deeply sympathized in the feelings of my wronged section, and believed
that the danger to her peace and security, from the ascendancy in the Government of a sectional party hostile to the form of her society, was
imminent and extreme. Therefore, the idea of a convention of the States not having seemed acceptable, I approved the act of my State as a
social and political necessity and duty. I did nothing, nor said anything, in the Senate to excite or aggravate irritation within that body, nor to
influence nor exasperate the public mind without, as the record of debates will show. I earnestly declare that the opinions which controlled
my course, and all the acts I performed, while I served as a public agent, so far as they were connected with the subject of the late civil
commotions, were conscientiously believed to be right and dutiful. I frankly own that events have seriously shaken the foundations of my
opinions, and to much extent affected my views; but the occasion is not appropriate to expression of any change, since my present
circumstances might bring my motives unjustly into question.

Upon my return home I immediately withdrew to private life, in pursuance of a previously announced purpose, and so remained since then
to the time of my arrest. The purpose I still entertain for my few remaining days. As before stated, I did not participate in the civil or military
organization or action of the Confederate Government. I consider that the war has evolved and embedded in the Government two leading
facts which must, and legitimately should, exercise a permanent control in American politics, namely, the fact as respects our social
structure, that involuntary servitude is abolished forever, and the other fact as respects our political structure, that the Union is national.
Universal freedom and American unity must now be regarded as fundamental principles in the Government of the United States, and
therefore cardinal points of policy. So believing, I accept them in good faith and am prepared to aid their beneficial development. As one of
the consequences of the recognition of nationality in the Government of the Union, there follows, in my judgement, the obligation of a direct
superior allegiance of the citizen to the Government of the United States in all matters falling within the sphere of the Federal powers, and
therefore I can honestly undertake, and shall truly perform, the duties of an allegiant citizen of the United States, according to the oath I have
taken this day. To you who are familiar with the antecedents of political parties and public men, and with the theories and issues which
have divided the country for many years past, I have not deemed it necessary to do much more than distinctly present my prayer. I am
induced also to hope that while the brevity of this application may bring it more speedily under your consideration, it will not repel your favor.
For whatever acts I have done which may by Your Excellency be considered in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States, I ask
from you, who represent the national will, a full amnesty.

David L. Yulee

Fort Pulaski,
June 24, 1865
David L. Yulee,

Fort Pulaski,
June 24, 1865
David L. Yulee, a prisoner confined in Fort Pulaski by the order of Major General Gillmore, commanding the Department of the South,
hereby declares under oath that in making application to the President for pardon under the invitation of the proclamation of amnesty of May
29, 1865, he supposes, without being sure, that he may be regarded as falling within the fourth, twelfth, and thirteenth exception clauses of
the said proclamation and under no others.

D. L. Yulee.

Sworn to before me this
24th day of June, 1865
Jos. B. Rife,
First Lieutenant, Sixty Infantry, U. S. Army,
Post Adjutant and Local Provost-Marshal.

Note - The affiant, while supposing he may in advance of a consideration of his case be regarded as falling within the fourth and thirteenth
as well as the twelfth exception clauses, and therefore to comply fully with the requirements of General Orders, No. 38, of the District of
Georgia, has called attention to them; thinks it proper to add that he does not regard himself as falling strictly under any other than the
twelfth, the fourth and thirteenth not being applicable to his case, as will appear by reference to the memorial which this affidavit

I, David L. Yulee, do solemnly swear in presence of Almighty God that I will henceforth faithfully support and defend the Constitution of the
United States, and the Union of the States thereunder, and that I will in like manner abide by and faithfully support all laws and
proclamations which have been made during the existing rebellion with reference to the emancipation of slaves: so help me God.

Subscribed at Fort Pulaski, and sworn to on the
23d of June, A. D. 1865.

D. L. Yulee.

Sworn to before me this
24th of June, 1865.
Jos. B. Rife,
First Lieutenant, Sixth Infantry, U. S. Army,
Post Adjutant and Local Provost-Marshal,

Jacksonville, Fla.,
July 11, 1865
His Excellency Andrew Johnson,
President of the United States:

Mr. President: The enclosed letter from Mr. D. L. Yulee, now a prisoner at Fort Pulaski, Ga., was received yesterday. I have to request that it
and my remarks may be filed with Mr. Yulee's petition until such time as Your Excellency may be able to act on said petition. I have
questioned quite a number of citizens, some loyal and others lately active among the rebels, and all agree that Mr. Yulee has lived quietly at
his home during the late struggle and refused all offers of office under the so-called Confederate authorities. I conversed with Mr. Yulee
previous to his arrest and since, and have inquired of others concerning him, and I infer from his conversation, as well as from the
testimony of others, that he belonged to the peaceable secession party, and was bitterly opposed to any resort to arms, desiring to have the
question of secession settled either by the courts or by a general convention to amend the Constitution. Mr. Yulee informed me previous to
his arrest that as soon as he was satisfied that the Government intended to carry out President Lincoln's
emancipation proclamation
he intended to call his slaves together and notify them that they were free, and that he would make arrangements with them for cultivating
the growing crops. I am also informed that he advised his friends to pursue a similar course. They have generally done so, and
comparative quiet and industry prevail throughout the limits of my command. From my conversations with Mr. Yulee I should infer that he
was not opposed to the adoption by the State of the constitutional amendment abolishing slavery and of a resolution disowning the right of
secession. Should Your Excellency see proper to extend Executive clemency to Mr. Yulee I think you will have no reason to regret having
done so and that you will find in him a peaceable and law-abiding citizen.

I am, very respectfully, Your Excellency's obedient servant,
I. Vogdes,

War Department,
Washington City,
July 11, 1865--3:45 p.m.
Judge William M. Merrick, Baltimore:
Mr. Yulee's application for release from Fort Pulaski has been considered by the President, who declines to grant the request, and directs
that Mr. Yulee be detained in custody at Fort Pulaski.
Edwin M. Stanton,
Secretary of War.

Fort Pulaski, Ga.,
August 21, 1865.
Maj. William C. Manning, Commanding Fort Pulaski:
Major: The undersigned prisoners of state, confined at this post under orders of the U. S. authorities, give this there parole of honor not to
attempt, under any circumstances, to leave the post without permission from said authorities.

It is understood that in consideration of this parole we are to enjoy the liberty of the island--with the exception of the wharves when boats or
vessels are there--during daylight, and the liberty of the main works at all hours; that we are not to forward or receive mail or express
matter--other than proper mess supplies--without it has previously been submitted to the commanding officer at the post for inspection.

Any infringement of the proceding--or such additional regulations as may from time to time be established--by any one of the subscribers,
to forfeit the privileges of all.

This parole to continue in force during our confinement at this post.
A. K. Allison. [Governor of Florida]
Chas. Clark.
D. L. Yulee. [Ex U. S. Senator]
G. A. Trenholm. [CSA Secretary of the Treasury]
A. G. Magrath. [Governor of South Carolina] - released November 23, 1865
James A. Seddon. [CSA Secretary of War] - released November 23, 1865
R. M. T. Hunter.
J. A. Campbell. [CAS Assistant Secretary of War]

October 22, 1865
Andrew Johnson, President of the United States:

Sir: I feel assured that you will pardon me for again calling your attention to Mr. Yulee and Mr. Allison, political prisoners confined at Fort
Pulaski, and Mr. Mallory, confined at Fort Lafayette.

I have not a word to say upon the subject of the political history of Mr. Yulee and Mr. Mallory. Your Excellency knows it as well or better than I
do. I have only to remark in regard to them that I think they may both be permitted to return to this State without any injury to its interests. Mr.
Yulee is the president of a railroad company whose interests are suffering for the want of his supervision and care. Mr. Allison became ex
officio Governor of this State on the death of Governor Milton by suicide just before the collapse of the rebellion. He was the president of the
Senate, and on the death of the Governor he became ex officio Governor until a Governor could be elected. I believe the only gubernatorial
act he did was to issue a proclamation ordering an election of a Governor to succeed Governor Milton. He is not a bad man. He has been
confined since the 1st of May. I think the people of this State would be much gratified to hear that he has returned to his family. The
convention meets here on the 25th instant.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Wm. Marvin,
Provisional Governor of Florida.

On November 23, 1865 the Bureau of Military Justice sends a report to Edwin Stanton, Secretary of War with information
on Senator Yulee

See Report on Prisoners Jefferson Davis, etc. to understand some of the political ramifications. This report was not
immediately released and by February 1866 more questions were being raised:

"To the House of Representatives:
In reply to the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 18th ultimo, requesting the President of the United States, "if not
incompatible with the public interest, to communicate to the House any report or reports made to the Judge Advocate General or any other
officer of the Government as to the grounds, facts, or accusations, upon which Jefferson Davis, Clement C. Clay, Jr., Stephen R. Mallory,
and David L Yulee, or either of them, are held in confinement," I transmit herewith reports from the Secretary of War and the Attorney
General, and concur in the opinion therein expressed, that the publications of the papers called for by the resolution is not, at the present
time, compatible with the public interest.
Andrew Johnson,
Washington, February 9, 1866

The Attorney General reported to the President:

Attorney General's Office
January 31, 1866

Sir: Sundry reports of facts, going to show that Jefferson Davis, and other rebels, have been guilty of high crimes, have been made to you
as the Chief Executive officer of the Government.-- Most of the evidence upon which they are based was obtained
ex parte, without notice to
the accused, and whilst they were in custody in military prisons. Their publication might wrong the Government, or the accused, or both.
Whilst I see that much wrong may flow from the publication, I cannot see that any good would come from it. In my opinion, then, public and
private justice alike demand that they should not be made public.

I am, sir, very respectfully,
James Speed,
Attorney General

They wanted to try him by court martial months after peace declared by Judge Advocate General Holt. He was tried
because Senator Yulee had tried to learn what stores and armament were in the Florida forts. (interesting it was Holt
himself as Acting Secretary of War who had sent the information to Senator Yulee - see above). After months and
months of trying a message was received from President Johnson: "Tell Mrs. Yulee, that not one hair of her husband's
head shall be touched--but for me to do anything now in his behalf, while passions remain excited, would only injure his

Finally only three major prisoners remained: Senator Clement Clay (had associations with John Wilkes Booth), Yulee
and Jefferson Davis. Former Confederate General Joe E. Johnson wrote Grant to intervene. Through the intervention of
General Ulysses S. Grant, Yulee was released in May 1866 receiving a pardon.

War Department, Adjutant General's Office,
March 25, 1866 -- 8:35 p.m.

Maj. Gen. J. M. Brannan, U. S. Volunteers,
Commanding Department of Georgia, Augusta, Ga.:

You are directed to discharge from custody D. L. Yulee, now confined at Fort Pulaski, upon his giving his parole to go to the State of Florida
and remain within the limits thereof, reporting his address monthly to the Adjutant-General of the Army, and to hold himself ready to answer
any charges which may be preferred against him, until further orders.

By order of the Secretary of War:

E. D. Townsend,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

War Department, Adjutant-General's Office,
Washington, April 7, 1866 -- 9:45 p.m.

Bvt. Maj. Gen. J. M. Brannan,
Commanding Department of Georgia, Augusta, Ga.:

The President directs that D. L. Yulee be relieved of so much of the parole given by him as restricts him to the limits of the State of Florida.
Acknowledge receipt.

E. D. Townsend,
Assistant Adjutant General

Years later after the Presidency of Johnson and Grant, U. S. Grant would visit Yulee in Fernandina on his Southern

He was president of the Florida Railroad Company 1853-1866; president of Peninsular Railroad Company, Tropical
Florida Railway Company, and Fernandina and Jacksonville Railroad Company; known as the “Father of Florida’s

Post War
David Yulee paid a price for the war he had helped institute. His railroad was mostly destroyed. He lost his plantation
house to fire. His house in Fernandina was sold by the Government for non-payment of taxes to the United States (he
was able to redeem the tax certificate in 1867 for $1,700 - when it was returned it was not without problems with a mob
assailing it the day Mrs. Yulee took possession breaking windows and doing damage), like all southerners his slaves
were freed and one year of his life was spent in jail not knowing if and when he would be tried for treason.

While in prison he wrote a letter advising that the Senators from Florida propose an amendment to the Federal
Constitution, declaring that no State can secede or dissolve its relations with the Union, except by the consent of two-
thirds of both houses of Congress, ratified by the Legislatures of two-thirds of the States.

While his political activity was limited after the war he offered through Governor Hart two resolutions for the
reconstruction Convention of 1867 and 68:

"Resolved. That we accept as settled principles in the policy of our country the perpetual union of the States, and the
liberty and civil equality of all citizens..."

"Resolved, that free government is practical, and consistent with civil order and social progress, only in the degree that
communities are advanced in virtue and intelligence, and that, therefore, the education of all the people is a proper
subject of public concern in all republics."

After his release from confinement, Yulee rebuilt the Florida Railroad, which had been destroyed by warfare. He served
as president of the Florida Railroad Company from 1853 to 1866, as well as president of the Peninsular Railroad
Company, Tropical Florida Railway Company, and Fernandina and Jacksonville Railroad Company. He sold out to
English capitalists. The problems were massive for the railroad after the war. Bonds were due, investors were unpaid.
The railroad was in shambles. Court cases started after the war went all the way to the U. S. Supreme Court in the case
David L Yulee Plff. in Err., v. Francis Vose.

David Yulee and Freedmen Education (The National Freedmen, 1866)
On my return from Jacksonville to Savannah, Ex-Senator Yulee was a passenger, with whom I had an interchange of
opinions respecting the education of the Negroes. He was surprised that any one could suppose that the former masters
opposed the instruction of the freed people. He wishes all taught, and taught thoroughly. On his own plantation he
maintains a school for their benefit. He thought that colored men and women should be employed as teachers, and
wished that the benevolent associations should co-operate with the State Governments, which I told him in my opinion
they were all anxious to do. Judge Yulee is a man of very superior intellect, and has pondered the subject on which he
spoke, and presented a few axioms which were so terse and significant that I regret my inability to reproduce them. He
promised to call at our office and make the acquaintance of our Executive Committee, and of the principles which guide
them in their action.

Washington Again
In 1880 he moved to Washington, D.C.  His wife died after a few months. His house was on Massachusetts avenue
facing Thomas Circle. The statue was alreold second-hand eight-wheeler locomotive named Abner McGeheeady
placed. General Schenck lived across the street next to Robert T. Lincoln. Even in Washington he traveled back and
forth between New York and Florida.

David Yulee contracted a severe cold while visiting his grandchildren in Bar Harbor, Maine. On his return trip to
Washington, he succumbed to pneumonia in the Clarendon Hotel, New York, on October 10, 1886  interment in Oak Hill
Cemetery, Washington, D.C.
Margarita on Tigerdale
The Senate's February 1847 resolution barring reporters and editors of the "Washington Union" from the Senate floor and gallery was the basis for the artist's demeaning portrayal of the newspaper's
powerful editor Thomas Ritchie. In the February 9 edition of the "Union," the mouthpiece or "organ" of the Polk administration, Ritchie strongly criticized congressional opposition to President Polk's
efforts to raise additional regiments of troops for the Mexican War. His characterization of the bill's defeat as "another Mexican victory" outraged many legislators, particularly South Carolinian John C.
Calhoun, who accused him of libeling the Senate. Here Ritchie, clad as a jester and holding a copy of the "Union," is literally kicked toward the left by a group of angry senators. Ritchie seems to be
either kicking or falling onto a small pipe organ (double-entendre for his paper's bias) which displays sheet music for "Clar De Kitchen." The title of this popular minstrel tune is here probably a swipe
at the "Kitchen Cabinet," a derisive name given by opposition critics since Jackson's time to the President's informal advisors. The organ topples to the left, alarming James K. Polk, who exclaims, "Oh
my poor "Organ," I'm afraid this kicking will put you sadly out of tune!" Ritchie, thumbing his nose (one assumes toward the senators) assures him, "If [Polk's Democratic predecessors] Jackson & Van
Buren survived the proscriptive edicts of the Senate, surely we have no reason to consider Ourselves demolished! "in Union is strength," Nous Verrons!!" Senators Daniel Webster and John C.
Calhoun (center, each with a boot on Ritchie) exclaim: "You may say that your account with us is "footed" up!" and "We'll teach you to play more respectful tunes when in our presence!" Between them
stands another senator holding a copy of the expulsion resolution; he says, "I move for the expulsion of the Kings fool from the floor of the house!" This is seconded by several others. Also present
are senators David Levy Yulee and James Diament Westcott, Jr., Democrats who voted for the resolution.
Yulee (to the right of Calhoun, his back to the viewer), the Florida legislator who
introduced the expulsion resolution, says,"I think Wescott, we've given him a lesson he won't forget!" Westcott agrees, "Aye, aye, Yulee, you, Calhoun, Butler & Myself may look
out for some big licks!"
(The four Democrats were in fact the targets of particularly strong editorial attacks by Ritchie). A third man (who may be intended to be Senator Andrew P. Butler, but bears
no resemblance to him) concurs, "Nous Verrons! As the poor fool says!"
                                                                                                                              Library of Congress
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Construction started in 1855

Fernandina to Lofton 10 miles Aug 1st 1856
Lofton to Crawford 20 miles Nov. 1st, 1856
Crawford to Fiftone 20 miles Aug. 1st, 1857
Fiftone to Reynolds 24 miles Mar. 1st, 1858
Reynolds to Hampton 6 miles Jan. 1st, 1859
Hampton to Gainesville 17.5 miles Feb. 1st, 1859
Gainesville to Venables 20 miles June 1st, 1859
Venables to Sumner 30.5 miles Jan. 1st, 1860
Sumner to Cedar Key 7.5 miles Mar. 1st, 1861

Total 155.5 miles,.
Schedule of Trains.
Monday, October 29, 1860.
12:45 PM Lv. Fernandina Ar. 2:15 PM
3:40 PM Lv. Baldwin Ar. 11:30 AM
6:40 PM Lv. Gainesville Ar. 8:10 AM
8:40 PM Ar. Bronson Lv. 6:05 AM
David Levy Yulee
Robert Raymond Reid
Charles A. Wickliffe
Senator Stephen R. Mallory
Senator Stephen Douglas
Joseph Holt
Yulee's brother-in-law
Secretary of War
Judge Advocate General
General Joseph Finegan, CSA
Governor John Milton
Governor Madison Perry
Judah Benjamin
Secretary of War CSA
Secretary of State CSA
General James Trapier CSA
James Seddon
Secretary of War CSA
President Jefferson Davis
General Joseph Johnson
President Andrew Johnson
General U. S. Grant
Edwin Stanton
Secretary of War
General John P. Hatch
Circular on Territory to
Levy Citizenship Part 3
U. S. War Department
Bureau of Military Justice
Moses Levy and David
Yulee Biography
Levy Seminole War
Fight between Florida
Judicary and CSA over
Florida Railroad
Levy Citizenship Part 1
Speech on Escaped St.
Augustine Slaves
Speech on Leaving the U.
S. Senate
Levy Citizenship Part 2
Statement on Jefferson
Davis' baggage
1843 Legislative Issues
     Bills Proposed by Delegate Levy

H. R. 18  Futher provision for the Supression of
Indian Hostilities in Florida.

H. R. 19  To provide for relief and protection of
the People of the United States against the
Indian banditti now infesting the Territority of
Florida and the State of Georgia - July 29, 1841.

H. R. 606 Concerning the Payment of the
Florida Militia

H. R. 726  For the relief of certain Florida
Circular on Territory to
Levy Citizenship Part 3
U. S. War Department
Bureau of Military Justice
Moses Levy and David
Yulee Biography
Levy Seminole War
Fight between Florida
Judicary and CSA over
Florida Railroad
Levy Citizenship Part 1
Speech on Escaped St.
Augustine Slaves
Speech on Leaving the U.
S. Senate
Levy Citizenship Part 2
Statement on Jefferson
Davis' baggage
1843 Legislative Issues