Duval Florida

St. Johns River
Mandarin is located 15 miles up the river from Jacksonville. In 1830 the area was named Mandarin after the Mandarin
orange by Calvin Reed a resident of the area.

First Presbyterian Church in Florida
Rev. Dr. McWhir on his way to St. Augustine founds the first Presbyterian church in Florida in Mandarin.

Seminole War (Jacksonville Courier, January 26, 1836) Abridged
Mr. Brush and Mr. Bynom, report that being on their way from St. Augustine to Mandarin, they were fixed upon in the
Swamp by a party of Indians way laying the road. They supposed there were at least twenty Indians, who were on each
side of the road, secreted in the thick bushes. After the volley poured upon them, they levelled their guns and fired
without seeing any one, in the direction in which they saw the flash of the guns, when 7 or 8 Indians rushed out into the
road before them to seize their horses. At this moment Bynom and Brush, each drawing a horse pistol, fired at the
nearest Indians, and at the same time dashing their spurs into their horses broke through and escaped unhurt. As the
pistols were discharged, one of the Indians was heard to cry "Oh!" but whether any was killed or not, they could not tell.
Several bullet holes were found through these two person's clothes, and one through Mr. Brush's hate.

Col. Mills, with about 40 men from this place and Mandarin, proceeded yesterday morning in search of the Indians, and
we understand he intended to pass the swamp and stay last night at St. Augustine.

Yesterday Maj. M'Kay, aid to Gen. Hernandez, came in with a guard of six men, from St. Augustine bringing dispatches
to the officers of this place. He states that although he diligently examined the road, and especially that part of it through
twelve mile swamp, he saw no signs of Indians.

A report was brought to town last night by Mr. Blair, that an Indian was yesterday evening seen near Messrs. Palmer &
Ferris' present establishment, one mile from Mr. Blair's plantation, and within seven of this city.---Mr. Ferris,
accompanying the man to the place where he said he saw the Indian, found there a moccasin track--an Indian sign. Col.
Warren and Major Hart, with 15 men, set off at daylight this morning to scour the hammock where the Indian was said to
have been seen.

What report our men will bring us, on their return, we cannot anticipate.

The residents on the banks of the
St. John's, from this place to Picolati, have removed their families to this city and
Mandarin. Many of the Plantations are entirely abandoned. Considerable alarm has prevailed during the last few days.
Some families, roused from their slumbers, have hastily left their dwellings in the night time, and sought safety by
repairing to our city.

From Florida Direct (Mercury, June 9, 1836)
By the arrival yesterday, of the schr
Motion, Capt. Willey, from Jacksonville, (E. F.) we learn that the Indians were still
committing depredations, and had advanced within two miles of Mandarin, situated on the St. Johns. They had killed
some cattle belonging to Mr. Hickman, and had destroyed the Houses belonging to Mr. Mott, a highly respectable
gentleman from New York, whom they killed and scalped. All the planters within the vicinity were removing to Mandarin,
leaving their fields with the crop growing. The probability is, they will ere long, destroy all the settlements on the
Johns river.

Letters from J. P. Belknap
Mandarin, March 13, 1839
But I must broach the all absorbing, all exciting theme---the mulberry. I thought when at New York I had made a good
contract, but it has proved far otherwise, for I found much to my surprise that the fever was raging higher here than at
Hartford or New York, for not only had some of the mulberry planters returned from travelling at the North, but several
Northern men had come here to buy mulberry and plant here to avail themselves of our climate; so instead of finding
plenty of opportunities for buying cheap, as I had every reason to expect, I found only buyers riding through the country
in search of it. This was a double disappointment, for in the first place I had formed a plan * * * to purchase up all the
mulberry in my neighborhood as soon as I arrived and with my own take it to New York and make quite a speculation
with it***. I have barely time to say that I have sold what I could spare and reserved enough to make a great number this
season, but such was my fear that something might occur to reduce the price*** that I sold them too soon and did not
get ore than half as much as I might soon after, for such is the rage for planting that they have risen to the enormous
price of 3 cents an eye for cuttings. The Davenports have shipped a great quantity. One lot of trees at St. Augustine
sold for $50,000.

Mandarin, July 10, 1840
***The unaccountable or rather abominable circumstances of the war, keeping me out of the possession of my place
and the total failure of the mulberry market, deprives me of all resources for the present.*** Neither can I do anything at
improving my orange grove without exposing myself to danger, for Indians are bolder than ever. They have dispersed
themselves into small parties and prowl about like wild beasts. They have committed murders near us upon the public
roads that have been travelled in safety until this season and the prospect never has been darker than the present for
its termination. There is no way to account for its termination. There is no way to account for the state of things, but by
the political condition of our country, being on the eve of a presidential election.***

(Near) Mandarin, Jan'y 1, 1842
*** You will doubtless think I had some cause for melancholy reflections when I tell you that I was but a little better than a
guard for protection--the Indians came into the very neighborhood of Mandarin, murdered one family and plundered and
burnt out three, and that I had just gotten settled at my place again after spending 2 or 3 months' time and some money.
This is the third time I have been obliged to abandon my place and sacrifice time, money and everything but my life. ***
In all former wars with the Indians they never were known to come into Mandarin settlement before.l And during this war
of more than six years they never have come nearer than Julington Creek (to my neighbor, Mott, adjoining me);
therefore at this late period when this part of the country had been so long quiet the inhabitants of Mandarin thought no
more of Indians than if there were none in the Territory, but now their fears are as great or greater than at any time
since the war broke out. It had been long reported and was generally believed that the troops had gotten almost all the
Indians out of the Territory and that the war would soon be terminated. But alas! We have just experienced another
cruel disappointment and there is no more security or prospect for its termination than at its commencement.*** I have
barely room to say that the creeping, skulking Indians never would have ventured into Mandarin settlement but that
there are no troops within 100 miles (20 or 30 except); they were all taken south in pursuit of Sam Jones and his
warriors. I hear that troops are on their way to be stationed near us for our protection. If so I may return to my place, for
all that return to reoccupy their places are now furnished with provisions till the next crop season.***

In December 1841 the Seminole Indians attacked and burnt the town and massacred the inhabitants. This statement is
repeated over and over but from the letters above you can get a different picture.

The incident occurred on December 20 by chiefs Powis-fixico (Short Grass) and Halleck-Tustenugee and his band.

Death (Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics (February 8, 1840)
At Mandarin, E. Florida, in Dec. last, Miss Mary Dearing, formerly of Portsmouth, N. H.

Indians Killed --Captured and Escape--Capt. Mason Killed (Southern Patriot, June 15, 1840)
From Florida--By the schr. Stephen & Francis, Capt. Magee, arrived from St. Augustine this morning, we have received
the St. Augustine News of the 12th inst., from which we copy the following:--

Indians Killed--Captured and Escape--Capt. Mason Killed.
We learn that Col. Riley's command, operating on the Withlacoochee, a few days since surprised an Indian camp, two
warriors of which were killed, one man and woman and child made prisoners. The Indian was placed under the charge of
a sentinel, who, falling asleep, allowed his escape. Pursuit was immediately made by Capt. J. B. Mason, of the Florida
Volunteers, who, being in advance of his men, was accidentally killed by the firing upon the escaping Indian.

The Indians who committed the outrages in this neighborhood a fortnight ago, and surrounded the dwellings at North
River, proceeded to the settlement at Mandarin, and were reconnoitering about there when their signs were discovered.
A party of gentlemen immediately started in pursuit, and came upon five of the rascals. They took to a high grass pond
and as the party were too small to surround it, the grass was fired, when the fellows escaped under the smoke. Their
tracks were numerous in and around the settlement.

More on the Seminole War
The Seminoles some still dressed in costumes as Shakespearean actors after the attack on the Picolata Stage --
attacked Mandarin at 1 p.m. on Monday, December 20, 1841.

"The Indians assailed the houses, yelling most furiously, and shot the inmates as they, frantic and confused, ran for the
main road," said Brevet Captain John T. Sprague, 8th regiment, US Infantry. "Two men, two women and an infant were
killed. The dwellings were plundered, then burnt, and for sixteen hours these savages danced around the smoldering
remains and mangled corpses of the slain,"

In preparation for Christmas, most men in Mandarin had organized a hunt to bag fresh venison or wild turkey for the
holiday dinner.

When the Indians saw the armed men leave for the hunt, they moved in.

First, they captured an elderly slave. They robbed him of $300 and under torture, forced him to disclose information
about the settlement. He tricked them out of attacking the main village by saying that soldiers were stationed at the
general store.

His lie saved the center of town but the Indians, seeking gunpowder for their flintlocks, crept toward nearby homes.

Mrs. William Hartley was sitting by her fireplace nursing her baby and chatting with William Malphus and Domingo
Acosta. The Indians fired through the door of the home killing her and Acosta instantly and injuring Malphus who ran
toward the woods.

A warrior caught him thirty yards from the house.

The Indian slashed the wounded man's forehead and inserted his fingers in to the gash and peeled the victim's scalp
back, leaving the white bone of his bare skull exposed.

Malphus did not die until the next morning.

The first gunshots alerted the rest of the village.

Leaving their possessions, families closest the river fled to the safety of a schooner anchored in the St. Johns. Others
barricaded their doors and spent the night crouched with rifles pointed out the windows. They were "ready to meet the
destroyer should he approach," the Herald said.

The raiders destroyed the homes of three different Hartley families and plundered the homes of the Sloan, Acosta,
Sedwick, James, Flynn and three different Hagan families.

The Flynns turned their "Peace Hounds" into the yard to delay the attackers while the family escaped to hide all night in
a swamp.

The savages slaughtered livestock, pillaged and burned homes, and hacked down the groves of orange and mulberry
trees which accounted for Mandarin's prosperity.

They returned to burn Mrs. Hartley's home where the attack had started.

"Her infant child was still alive and perished in the flames, still clinging to the breast of its murdered mother", the

The Mandarin raid supplied the Indians with pounds of gunpowder which they needed to continue fighting. One
Seminole had declared, "Let us alone and we will not attack you... but if you make war on us we will fight as long as our
ammunition lasts and, when this is gone, we will take to the bow and arrow."

At dawn, dazed Mandarin residents saw the smoldering ruins and anticipated another attack. Some gathered what was
left of their belongings and fled to

In a letter dated Jan. 1, 1842, Jefferson Belknap, a mulberry planter, said, "This is the third time I have been obliged to
abandon my place and sacrifice time, money, and everything but my life."

From Florida (The Daily Atlas, January 6, 1842) Another version of the Mandarin attack
Murder and Destruction of Property.--For some time past, our citizens in this section of country, East of the
St. Johns,
have been lulled into apparent security, under the idle and vague belief that there was no danger to be apprehended,
since the notorious Wild Cat and his party, who were believed to be the only Indians who have from time to time
committed depredations on this side of the river, were shipped to the West. But we have now to record the fact, that on
Monday last a party of twenty-one Indians approached the settlements at Mandarin, and after capturing an old negro
belonging to Mr. William Hartly, laid by until night, when they attacked the house of that gentleman (Wm. Hartly,) who
happened to be out hunting, killing his wife and child, and Messrs. Domingo Acosta, and William Molpus. The Indians,
after committing the foul deed, plundered the house and applied the torch. It was consumed, together with the
out-buildings. They then proceeded to the plantations of Nathaniel and George Hartly, the inmates having fled, and
likewise burnt and destroyed them. The Indians then proceeded a short distance in a southerly direction, where they
encamped until morning, when they released the old negro and proceeded on their course.

Capt. Curry, of Mandarin, with a few other citizens, followed their trail the next day for some distance, until it was finally

On rumour of this transaction reaching town, Lt. Judd, with a small detachment of soldiers from the Barracks, the only
available force, immediately proceeded in pursuit.

The Indians are still believed to be North of the Picolata road, as no signs have been discovered of their recrossing.

And a third version of the attack -- More Indian Murders (The Pittsfield Sun, January 6, 1842)
The family of Mr. Harley, consisting of himself, wife and three children, residing at Mandarin, Florida, were all murdered
by a party of 21 Indians, on the night of the 20th ult. The Indians set fire to their dwelling, and being unable to escape
the whole family of Mr. Harley were destroyed in the flames.

From Florida (Daily Atlas, March 22, 1844)
The Tropical Plant says--"Mr. John Hartley, a resident of Mandarin, immediately after the conclusion of a dance at his
father's house, while in the act of taking a seat, suddenly fell to the floor and expired. He was about 22 years of age.
Our readers may remember that we reported a similar sudden death about last Christmas, in the case of Mr. Silcox, who
expired suddenly much in the same manner as Mr. Hartley, directly after dancing."

Married (Trenton State Gazette, October 11, 1848)
On Tuesday morning, October 10th, at Richmond Hall, by the Rev. Samuel Starr, Col. J. H. McIntosh of Mandarin, East
Florida, to Charlotte Nielson, daughter of the late Joseph Higbee.

Mandarin Mission
A 400-square-mile area became known as the Mandarin Mission. From the Second Spanish period till the Civil War
Mandarin was one of the stops on the mission circuit, visited by priests from St. Augustine once or twice a year.  The
visiting priests said Mass in private homes.  In 1850, however, Bishop Augustine Verot of St. Augustine built a small
chapel for the visiting priests in Mandarin.

The first "St. Joseph's" was built in 1858 on land donated by George Hartley, a
Jacksonville pioneer who later perished
in the Civil War.  Located near the present "Old Church," it measured 60 x 26 feet.  It was built of unplaned pine in the
shape of a cross.  Two small rooms behind the altar served as the sacristy and the rectory.

In 1860, Bishop Verot sent Father John Chambon to St. Joseph's as its first resident pastor.  He had recruited Father
Chambon and other priests from France several years earlier, given them a crash course in English, and brought them
to St. Augustine.  Father Chambon dedicated St. Joseph's on February 22, 1860, and served as pastor during the early
years of the Civil War.  Father Chambon's efforts extended beyond St. Joseph's; he's been called the founder of the
Mandarin Mission.  From his headquarters at St. Joseph's, he traveled to the mission posts and called on parishioners
by foot and on horseback.  He performed 151 Baptisms.

Sinking of the Maple Leaf
Launched  on  June 18, 1851 the Maple Leaf was a typical Great Lakes passenger steamship of the decade preceding
the American Civil War. Her Canadian customhouse measurements were 398 tons burthen, 173.2 feet long, 24.7 feet in
breadth of hull, and 10.6 feet depth of hull.

In 1862 the
Maple Leaf was sold to Bostonians J.H.B. Lang and Charles Spear who chartered it to the U.S. Army on  
September 3, 1862. The
Maple Leaf was used as a transport vessel throughout the east coast.

River pilot Romeo Murry guided the 173-foot U. S. Army steamship
Maple Leaf. At four a.m. on the morning of April 1,
1864, while returning to Jacksonville from
Palatka, Maple Leaf struck a Confederate torpedo off Mandarin Point in the
St. John's River. The explosion tore the bow of the ship apart, ripping through the deck and killing four soldiers. The
vessel sank quickly, but apart from those lost in the explosion there were no other fatalities.

"The river was still and the channel easy, and if there had been anything as big as my hat on the water I could have
seen it," river pilot Murry would testify. At that point, he said, came the loud explosion right underneath the ship, lifting
the pilothouse up and slamming Murry's head into the ceiling. Within five minutes, the
Maple Leaf was on the bottom of
the St. John's River in 20 feet of water.  Fifty-seven people escaped via lifeboats to complete the trip to Jacksonville.
Three Confederate prisoners temporarily were left perched atop part of the
Maple Leafs superstructure, which barely
remained above the waterline.

Loss of Another Steamer by Torpedoes -- The General Hunter Blown Up (The Philadelphia Inquirer, April 25,
April 17, 1864 - The misfortunes of the Florida expedition accumulate. Night before last the steamer
General Hunter was
destroyed by a torpedo in the
St. John's, making two valuable transports lost by these infernal machines within a
fortnight. The Hunter was loaded with quartermaster's stores and was bound to
Picolata, forty miles above here, where
we have a brigade of contraband troops. Singularly enough, the Hunter was blown up exactly abreast of the ruins of the
Maple Leaf, destroyed on the 3d of the month.

After the Civil War
In 1869 there was not hotel but boarding could be had with Mr. Charles F. Reed, near the landing. Mr. Foote was the
postmaster. The community had a school house, a church and about a dozen houses. One of the owners of six acres
was Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe who had moved there in 1867. Another owner was the Marquis de Talleyrand.

Stowe lived in Mandarin for 17 years. She wrote a book about Mandarin and the St. Johns River called
Palmetto Leaves.
It was published in 1873.

Rebirth of the Mandarin Mission
In 1866 St. Joseph's was without a resident pastor and once again became a mission church. After the Civil War ended
in 1865, Bishop Verot recruited the Sisters of St. Joseph from his native town of Le Puy, France, to establish schools
throughout Florida.  Recruited to teach newly emancipated blacks, the sisters' mission had expanded to include all
children by the time they arrived in Mandarin.  Sister Mary Julia Roussel, an educated Frenchwoman, and Sister Mary
Bernard, an Irishwoman, arrived at St. Joseph's in 1868, beginning a century of education and charitable service in the
Mandarin area.  The two sisters made the 13-hour journey from St. Augustine on February 3rd, traveling 27 miles by
oxcart over the rough terrain.  They opened school the next day in the vacant church.  Enrollment grew from 30 after
two weeks to 80 three months later.  However, the nuns boarded over a mile away and had to walk back and forth six
times a day through thick, wet undergrowth, once getting lost in the woods and wandering about until late at night.  
Sister Julia took ill several months later, and the sisters returned to St. Augustine in May, 1868.

Father Stephen Langlade was the next resident pastor.  He rebuilt the old school. He built partitions, providing several
school rooms on the first floor, an outside staircase, and sleeping quarters on the second floor.  The sisters returned in
February, 1873.

In December, 1877, two months after a yellow fever epidemic had swept through Jacksonville and the surrounding
areas, the Bishop sent Father Henry Clavreul to St. Joseph's.  He remained for 25 years.  At his arrival, there were
about 600 Catholics in the Mandarin Mission;  Father Clavreul had a number of new churches built throughout the

Because the first church had fallen into disrepair and grown too small to accommodate Sunday masses, Father Clavreul
began construction of a new church.  The church was under construction for over 20 years. It was finished by the next
pastor, Father James Veale, who added a belfry and dedicated the church in 1912.  The church measured 80 x 26 feet,
with clapboard siding, a pine floor, pine pews and a simple altar.  

A Winter in Florida by Ledyard Bill, 1869
Mandarin lies just before us. This place is famous as the winter residence of Mrs. Stowe. It is but a small settlement, of
perhaps a half-dozen dwellings scattered along a tongue of land projecting toward the center of the river, and forming a
kind of bay. The outlook is northerly toward Jacksonville, which lies a score of miles distant down the river. The location
of Mandarin is exceedingly pleasant, and the view fine and far-reaching.

The water near the bank of the river on the Lower St. John's is quite shallow, necessitating a projecting pier of some
length at all of the landings; and this is especially the case at Mandarin. Mrs. Stowe's house is near the bank, and but a
few rods to the left of the shore-end of the pier. It is of a dark brown color, of very moderate cottage size, wholly
unpretending in appearance, and quite inexpensive. The chief feature of her place, as seen from the river, is its
magnificent towering shade-trees,---the water-oak. They attract and fasten the eyes of all by their usual size and
beauty. Their wide-spread and over-shadowing branches give an air of seclusion and dignity to the quiet home beneath.
Her place, we are informed, consists of some forty acres in the rear of her dwelling, with three or four acres of
orange-trees, large enough to bear fruit. This grove is being added to, and doubtless in time she will possess a very
large and beautiful orchard and one of great value.

There is but one small boarding-house at Mandarin, and few disembark; none that we notice, except such as reside in
the vicinity. The mails being exchanged and freight left.

The Orange Culture in East Florida. (Macon Weekly Telegraph, April 6, 1870)
Mr. C. F. Reed, of Mandarin, raised twelve hundred oranges from three trees in 1868--one tree bearing 3,200 one
3,300 and the third 5,500--some of the oranges weighed nineteen ounces.

Readings by Mrs. Stowe (Hartford Daily Courant, January 1, 1872)
It will be a very delightful announcement that Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe will give some public readings---principally from
her Old Town Stories---this week, probably Friday evening in the Seminary Hall. Mrs. Stowe is a charming narrator, and
these readings will no doubt give a great deal of pleasure to those who attend them.

It is scarcely necessary to say that Mrs. Stowe would not come before the public in this way except for a charitable object.

The church at Mandarin, Florida, where Mrs. Stowe has a winter home, was recently burned together with all its
contents, books of worship, cabinet organ, etc. It was a very neat edifice and was essentially a missionary church in a
region much needing it. It was the only church for a very large extent of country, up and down the
St. Johns' river, we
dare hardly say how large. Service on Sunday, together with a Sunday school, have been kept up there for several
years, and the attendance of all colors has been good. Its loss is a very serious one to all that thinly settled country,
where there are so few persons able to contribute to a new one. But it is encouraging to hear that a few of the families
who have recently gone there have already pledged several hundred dollars to begin building again.

Mrs. Stowe's readings will be for the benefit of the new church. Announcement will be made of the sale of seats; but they
can probably be found at Messrs. Brown & Gross' soon.

Severe Accident to Mrs. Stowe (Hartford Daily Curant, March 4, 1872)
The New York Evening Post of Saturday says: "Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe met with a serious accident on the 20th
ultimo, at her home in Mandarin, Florida, by falling backward from a table, on which she was standing to arrange a
window curtain, her head striking the sharp edge of a bedstead and her back hitting a bath-tub. She was picked up
insensible, but the latest accounts indicate that she is likely to recover."

The Beechers in Florida (Macon Weekly Telegraph, April 6, 1875)
We reached Mandarin, fifteen miles from Jacksonville. Mrs. Stowe has given this place fame, and everybody was on the
qui vive to see her house and the lady herself, if perchance she should be at the landing. Her residence, an
unpretentious cottage, stands twenty or thirty rods back from the river, almost hidden behind the orange grove and
shade trees, and nestling beneath a pair of the mightiest water oaks I have seen in Florida. There are more stately
mansions, and more elaborate surroundings in Florida, but none more expressive of the culture and refinement that
dwell within. Mrs. Stowe was not at the wharf, but her daughter was--a young lady bearing the Beecher cast of features,
had looking out of as sharp a pair of eyes as can well be imagined. Henry Ward Beecher has purchased ground near
his sister's, and his agent, who is setting out an orange grove for him, tells me that he is to come down here as soon as
the great trial is over.

The Great South by Edward King (1875)
Fifteen miles from Jacksonville, on the eastern shore, is the pretty town of Mandarin, so called from the culture there of
that variety of the orange. Through the trees gleam white cottages. Orange groves, with the golden fruit glistening
among the dark leaves, come to the very water's edge. There, in winter, lives Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, besieged by
hundreds of visitors, who do not seem to understand that she is not on exhibition. Mandarin was once the scene of a
dreadful Indian massacre; a generation ago, the Seminoles fell upon it and massacred all within its limits.

Mrs. Stowe's Home. (Hartford Daily Courant, May 16, 1876)
A letter from Mandarin, Florida, to the Minneapolis Tribune says:--"The winter home of Mrs. H. B. Stowe is a beautiful
place of five and a half acres in extent, on the east bank of the St. John. Originally the house was not of much account,
but she has added to it till it is quite a large and comfortable place. The grounds contain about 125 old orange trees
that are in full bearing condition. The house, five and a half acres of land and trees cost her at first $6,500. Now, with
the additions to the house and the rise of property, with a few new trees she has put in on the old ground, the place is
worth $20,000, and not for sale at that. She has also a plantation a little further up the river, on which she has between
three and four thousand young trees. These will soon begin to bear."

Florida It's Scenery, Climate, and History by Sidney Lanier (1876)
Three miles above, on the left, is Mandarin, a small but long-settled village. Here, in the early Indian wars, occurred a
dreadful massacre. It is now most noted as the residence of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. Her house is a brown cottage,
near the shore, nearly obscured by foliage. It is not nearly so imposing as her Tree -- a magnificent king that overhangs
her roof with a noble crown.

At Mandarin are a Catholic church and convent, a post-office, a store or two, and several fine orange-groves. There is
no hotel, but travelers are accommodated at boarding-houses.

Mrs. Stowe's Real Condition (Sun, December 18, 1889)
The reports which have been sent out from Hartford, Conn., in regard to Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe's being demented
are ludicrous. There is just enough of fact to bang a plausible story of this sort upon, but nothing more. Mrs. Stowe is
seventy-six years of age, and, like all persons of extremely nervous temperament when they reach such an age, is more
or less broken down, physically and mentally. But to say that she is demented is to say what is not true. She is not at all
times in the possession of her mental power to the extent of being able to write vigorously upon any topic, but some of
the letters she has written in the past few months show a strength not to be despised. She delights in strolling about the
neighborhood when the weather is find, and she frequents the greenhouse of Mr. Clements [Samuel Clements, Mark
Twain], who lives but a few doors away, where she will pass hours looking at the flowers and singing, but any word will
immediately bring her back to complete self-possession. She is simply broken down, "childish," to use the accepted term
to apply to an old person's declining years. She is carefully cared for by her two twin daughters, who reside with her,
and her property interests are in the hands of her son, the Rev. Charles E. Stowe, who is now in Florida for the purpose
of disposing of her property at Mandarin. --
New York Tribune. [She would die July 1, 1896, aged 85 years old.]

How Harriet Beecher Stowe Helped a Southern State (The Idaho Daily Statesman, February 24, 1911)
In the mid-spring of 1883 I was a passenger upon a steamboat scheduled to run from
Jacksonville, Fla., up the St. Johns
river to Sanford, located at the end of steamboat navigation on the river. To make the trip required a journey lasting
from about 7 o'clock in the evening until noon the next day.

Among the passengers was E. K. Foster, Jr., son of a distinguished lawyer of New Haven, Conn., who was in his early
life a very prominent Republican and a warm personal friend of Abraham Lincoln's. E. K. Foster, Jr., was one of the
pioneers, so to speak, who went from the north to Florida soon after the close of the civil war. He foresaw the
possibilities of Florida as an orange producing state and had made a venture in an orange plantation.

Around Mr. Foster, on the steamer's deck, collected a number of the passengers, who were much interested as he
pointed out various orange groves that lined the banks of the river, told of their ownership, and spoke of some of the
difficulties which the early development of the orange growing business in Florida had met with.

"But the most interesting by far of the orange groves upon the river," Mr. Foster said, "is one that is located near
Mandarin. I never see it without thinking of the extraordinary significance associated with its ownership. It is the grove
that was bought by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Within it stands her winter home, or did as long as her health and that of her
husband, Professor Stowe, permitted, them to make the journey every winter from New England to Florida.

The special significance to which I refer lies in the fact that Mrs. Stowe was really the first person of the north to fix the
attention of the north upon the magnificent winter climate of Florida, and the opportunities that were opening to that
state to engage in successful rivalry with the West Indies and with Italy for command of the market in the United States
for oranges.

Others came to Florida from the north before Mrs. Stowe did: It is my recollection that she bought the orange grove and
built the house which stands in its center about 1867. But it was the national, the world wide reputation of Mrs. Stowe
that caused her choice of Florida as a winter residence, and her enthusiastic belief in the future of the state as an
orange producing region, to fix attention upon Florida.

Her venture here, too, was one of the first of the proofs offered to the country and the world at large that ultimately
there would be complete reconciliation between the north and the south, and that it would be due in large part to the
development of the resources of the south by means of northern capital.

When it became known that Mrs. Stowe had bought his orange grove, many persons in the north said that she would be
likely to suffer a good deal in the way of social ostracism and by various other manifestations which would show that in
the south she was looked upon as one of the fomentors of the civil war through the publication of "
Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Mrs. Stowe, however, had not the slightest apprehension on this score. She said she knew the people of the south, was
conscious of the fact that they were warm hearted, generous and broad minded, and so felt no anxiety.

She met with exactly the reception she expected. She was welcomed by the people of Florida. She was treated with
respect, and after a while there was general acknowledgment of the fact that by coming to Florida by thus calling
attention to the possibilities of the state as an orange growing community, she turned the tide in the state from the ebb
of despair and demoralization towards the flood of prosperity which within a few years came to it.

But it is a little singular, isn't it, that Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of "
Uncle Tom's Cabin," should have been the
one person in all the United States to do that?

Reunion in Jacksonville Delegates and Visitors Will Find Many Things to Interest Them (Columbus Daily
, March 23, 1914) Abridged
Delegates and visitors to the Confederate reunion at
Jacksonville in May will find many things to interest them besides a
modern, enterprising city. There are trips on the river, to the seashore and elsewhere that hundreds will desire to take
before returning home. The only extensive orange groves of the
Jacksonville vicinity are situated on the St. Johns river
some miles above the city. A trip to them can be made in a few hours by river steamer and in shorter time by
automobiles. The site of the old Harriet Beecher Stowe home, author of "
Uncle Tom's Cabin," is at Mandarin among the
orange groves. This historic residence, however, was destroyed by fire. Some miles higher on the river is
Green Cove
Springs one of the picturesque wonders of America.

World War I
Joseph C. Bowden was seriously injured according to the Macon Daily Telegraph, December 31, 1918 a month and a
half after the fighting had ended.

1939 Mandarin (Florida, WPA)
MANDARIN (16 alt., 645pop.), on the east bank of the St. Johns River, a village founded during the English occupation
of Florida (1763-83). In the vicinity stood Thimagua, an Indian town visited in 1564 by Laudonniere, French explorer of
the St. Johns. During the Spanish regime in Florida, the village was known as San Antonio. It was named Mandarin for a
variety of orange of that name introduced here from China.

Mandarin was not incorporated until 1841. During the latter part of the Civil War a U. S. Navy gunboat shelled the village
in an offensive against Confederates who sought to block transportation of Federal soldiers down the river. One cannon
ball remains lodged in a tree. After the war the village flourished. In 1885 it had a population of 1,200, a boardwalk along
the riverfront, large estates, and three steamer landings. As was true of Enterprise, Picolata, and other St. Johns River
towns, a decline began with the cessation of heavy water traffic at the advent of railroads.

For many years Mandarin was the winter home of Harriet Beecher Stowe (1812-96) author of
Uncle Tom's Cabin, who
moved here in 1867. During following winters she completed
Palmetto Leaves, Our Plantation, and other works. Mrs.
Stowe and her husband, Professor Charles B. Stowe, taught in the Episcopal chapel, dedicated November 4, 1883. The
one-room chapel of perpendicular pine siding, with an open conical belfry, contains a Tiffany window to the memory of
Mrs. Stowe, contributed by popular subscription under the sponsorship of the magazine

In 1968 Jacksonville and Duval County formed a consolidated government. Mandarin became a community within this

Other Notables
John Peter Brown
, born March 17, 1806, came to Mandarin from Fulton County, N.Y. in 1828. Engaged in farming.
Nancy Bowden, March 28, 1833, in Jacksonville, Fla. He died in Mandarin Jan. 18, 1852. John and Nancy had
6 children, the first of whom was John Christopher.

John Christopher Brown, born Feb.12, 1836, in Mandarin. He married Matilda Adlyn Haskins, May 9, 1855. They
owned a river front home, a large orange grove, and operated a store in the village. Apparently John took part in the
last at the Seminole Indian Wars; he is listed as a soldier in Steward's Co., 1856. (Board of State Institutions, "
Soldiers of
the Seminole Indian, Civil and Spanish-American Wars
. ") From 1875 to 1879 he was the Postmaster at Mandarin. He
died in Mandarin, Jan. 15, 1902, and was buried in the Loretto Cemetery. On his tombstone is engraved:  "Co. A Fla.
Infantry." Matilda died in Mandarin, June 12, 1904. John and Matilda had 8 children, the first of whom was

Frank Goodwin Killed at Mandarin - Murderer Caught (St. Augustine Evening Record, October 24, 1913)
Frank Goodwin, a well known resident of the Mandarin neighborhood in Duval county, was shot and killed late yesterday
afternoon, tom and Loria Picket being charged with the crime. They were said to have been seen coming toward St.
Augustine in an automobile and warning was sent Sheriff Perry and Deputy Sheriff Haddock of Duval came over here.
He and Deputy Sheriffs Charley Perry and Raymond Sabate spent much of the night searching north of the city for the

According to information received by Sheriff Perry shortly before daylight this morning by telephone one of the men was
captured in Duval and the other had been located.

The following from this morning's Times-Union gives details of the gruesome story:

Riddled with bullets the dead body of Frank P. Goodwin, a white man of about forty years of age, was found beside the
St. Augustine road about six miles from Jacksonville early last night. Sheriff W. H. Dowling and his staff of deputies are
now searching for Tom and Lorin Pickett.

Buckman Bridge
In 1971, the Buckman Bridge (I-295) was completed, linking Mandarin to Orange Park. The bridge is of beam-type
construction, approximately 3.1 miles (5 km) in length, and travels roughly east-west. This bridge linked Mandarin with
Orange Park.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
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Rev. Calvin Ellis Stowe
(April 6, 1802 - August 22, 1886)
Founder Church of Our Savior Episcopal