Establishment of Mitchelville on Hilton Head Island General Orders No 3. General M. S. Littlefield February 13, 1865
American Missionary Association H5523
Headquarters U. S. Forces Hilton Head, St. Helena, and Twelve Islands, Hilton Head, S. C. February 18, 1865
General Orders No. 3
One of the results of Civil War has been the accumulation of a large Colored Population upon Hilton Head Island, S. C. Their present condition demands the sympathy and cooperation of the philanthropic and those in authority, to aid them in organizing, as far as possible, the means of self government, by establishing schools, and police and sanitary regulations. To this end it is hereby ordered.
1. That all lands now set apart for the colored population, near Hilton Head, are declared to constitute a village, to be known as the Village of Mitchelville. Only freedmen and colored persons residing or sojourning within the territorial limits of said Village, shall be deemed and considered inhabitants thereof.
II. The Village of Mitchelville shall be organized and governed as follows:--said Village shall be divided into districts, as nearly equal to population as practicable, for the election of Councilmen, Sanitary and Police Regulations, and the General Government of the people presiding therein.
III. The Government shall consist of a Supervisor and Treasurer to be appointed by and hold office during the pleasure of the Military Commander of the District, assisted by a Councilman from each council district, to be elected by the people, who shall also at the same time choose a Recorder and Marshal. The duties of the Marshal and Recorder shall be determined by the Council of Administration.
IV. The Supervisor and Councilmen shall constitute the Council of Administration with the Recorder as Secretary.
V. The Council of Administration shall have power:
1. To make rules for the conduct and record of its proceeding.
2. To pass such ordinances as it shall deem best in relation to the following subjects: To establish schools for the education of Children and other persons. To prevent and punish vagrancy, idleness and crime. To punish licentiousness, drunkenness, offenses against public decency and good order, and petty violation of the rights of property and person. To require the observance of the Lord's Day. To collect fines and penalties. To punish offences against village ordinances. To settle and determine disputes concerning claims for wages, personal property, and controversies between debtor and creditor. To levy and collect taxes to defray the expenses of the village government, and for the support of schools. To lay out, regulate, and clean the streets. To establish wholesome sanitary regulations for the prevention of disease. To appoint officers, places, and times, for the holding of elections. To compensate municipal officers, and to regulate all other matters effecting the well-being of citizens, and good order of society.
VI. The Supervisor shall hold a court at such times as the necessities of the Village may require, for the hearing and determining of disputes and controversies between the inhabitants of the villages. The parties aggrieved by any final decision of the Supervisor's Court, shall have an appeal to the commanding Officer of the District, through the Superintendent of Freedmen.
Vii. All village ordinances must be approved by the District Commander, and when so approved shall be binding upon all the inhabitants thereof.
VIII. Hilton Head Island will be divided into School Districts; to conform as nearly as practicable to the schools established by the Freedmen's Association. In each District there shall be elected on School Commissioner who will be charged with supplying the wants of the schools, under the direction of the Teacher thereof. Every child, between the ages of six and fifteen years, residing within the limits of such School Districts, shall attend school daily, while they are in session, excepting only in case of sickness. Where children are of suitable age to earn a livelihood, and their services are required by their parents or guardians, and on the written order of the Teacher in such School District, may be exempt from attendance for such time as said order shall specify. And the parents and guardians will be held responsible that said children so attend school, under the penalty of being punished at the discretion of the Council of Administration.
IX. The District Provost Marshal is hereby charged with the execution of this order.
By Order of
Bvt. Brig. Gen. M. S. Littlefield ?
1. General Milton S. Littlefield - (July 19, 1830 - March 7, 1899) from Ellisburgh, New York. Some time in the mid-1850's, Milton moved to Jerseyville, Illinois where he opened up a law firm. He was a supporter of Abraham Lincoln in his political campaigns. In 1861, Milton organized Company F, Fourteenth Illinois Infantry Volunteers and was elected Captain of this same company. The regiment was organized for 30 days and was mustered into the service at Jacksonville, Illinois on May 4, 1861. On May 25, 1861, it was mustered into the service of the United States. The regiment remained at Camp Duncan at Jacksonville where the troops were trained. On June 1861, the regiment was transferred to Rolla, Missouri, where it joined forces under General John C. Fremont. They spent the winter at Otterville, Missouri. In February 1862, the regiment was ordered to join forces with General Grant at Donelson, Tennessee. From there to Fort Henry, Tennessee where it embarked and was transported by steamboat up the Tennessee River to Pittsburgh Landing. They were assigned to a position in Peach Orchard where they came under attack from Confederate forces. The enemy was finally repulsed. The regiment took part in the siege of Corinth during the month of May 1862. Captain Milton S. Littlefield was appointed Assistant Provost Marshal for the city of Memphis per General Order No. 72, Hqs. Fifth Division, Memphis, August 14, 1862. Captain Littlefield was mustered out of the 14th on November 27, 1862. He reenlisted and was sent Morris Island off the coast of South Carolina as a Colonel, Commanding the Fourth South Carolina,Volunteers. This would later become the 21st USCT. He commanded the 21st from March to November 1864. On July 24, 1863, Colonel Littlefield was also placed in command of the 54th Massachusetts. He was under Col Montgomery's 4th Brigade. Before February 1864 he was commanding a training camp outside of Jacksonville. On February 15, 1865 Milton S. Littlefield was confirmed a U. S. General. After the war he became involved several Reconstruction Era scandals but was never convicted. He died in New York.
2. This document establishes the foundation date for Mitchelville as a corporate body in February 1865. However the building of Mitchelville began before that date: