St. Johns River
Florida
The St. Johns River was called Welaka (chain of lakes) by Native Americans, Riviere de Mai by the French (1592), St.
John's River by the Spanish (1564). This is the largest river in Florida. It rises in a vast tract of uncharted and unnamed
lakes and marshes near the Atlantic coast in Brevard and Osceola Counties (1892). About in latitude 28 degrees 10
minutes N., and flows northward, in a direction generally parallel to the coast, but exceeding tortuous when considered
in detail, a distance of nearly three hundred miles. It falls into the sea in latitude 30 degrees 25 minutes N., between Fort
George and Batten Islands on the north, and the mainland on the south. Between the point and St. Augustine Inlet, forty-
two miles south, the mainland abuts upon the ocean, a condition rarely found on the South Atlantic sea-coast. Almost
everywhere else a system of islands or peninsulas lies a short distance off the coast, affording sheltered navigation by
an inside route. In this case the St. John's River goes far to make good the lack of the usual channel, for vessels
drawing five feet can ascend about two hundred and thirty miles, where they are only about seven miles from the tide-
water of Indian River.

The bar at the month of the river is one of the most treacherous on the coast, although the construction of jetties was
begun in 1880 and still continues. Prior to this large sums were ineffectually expended in dredging. The original plans
called for about one thousand feet of jetties, extending in an easterly direction from deep water inside the bar. It was
thought that the scour of the tides would thus keep clear a channel of ample width, and with 15 feet depth at low water.

In 1879, Congress appropriated funds to build the jetties, necessary to create a controllable channel at the mouth of the
river. In the 1890s, the Jacksonville Board of Trade, as the Chamber of Commerce was then called, got Duval County to
authorize $300,000 to dredge an 18-foot channel. In 1902, Congress paid $2.1 million to have it dredged to 24 feet
which was done by 1907. In 1910, a 30 foot channel was dredged. In 1912, the U.S. House of Representatives
demanded that City of Jacksonville government build city-owned docks, terminals, and warehouses

St. John's River Light in a red brick tower with black lanterns, 80 feet above sea level, showing a fixed white light of the
third order, visible 15 miles at sea (Lat. 30 degrees 23 minutes 37 seconds; Long. 81 degrees 25 minutes 27 seconds).

Approaching from sea and looking southward along the beach, the houses and wharves of Mayport are seen on the left,
with the works on shore where the jetty mattresses are made and launched. Father to the south are the hotels and
cottages of Burnside Beach and Pablo Beach. On the right of the entrance are Batten Island and Fort George Island
joined by a causeway. The cluster of buildings is on Batten Island. It includes the pilot and telegraph station, and some
interesting and picturesque old Coquina ruins. After crossing the bar, the most conspicuous natural object is St. John's
Bluff, with precipitous sand-slopes toward the river, and crowned with dense woods. Elsewhere on all sides stretch wide
marshes, beautiful in color at times, and dotted here and there with tree-covered islands, which are often shell mounds
of unknown antiquity, sometimes containing relics of prehistoric races much sought after by the antiquarian.  


The Civil War
Traces of ancient fortifications of considerable extent still exist, mingled with the half-obliterated earthworks thrown up by
the Confederates during the Civil War. The position was fortified by the Confederates in the winter of 1861-62. The first
documented case of a rebel ship running the Union blockade was Brock’s
Darlington, which delivered supplies into
Jacksonville. The blockade running exploits of the Darlington ended in March 1862 with its capture at Fernandina.

On September 17, 1862, a fleet of six United States gunboats crossed the bar, and for some hours vigorously shelled
the woods and batteries about St. John's Bluff. They dismounted or disabled some of the guns, and damaged the
breastworks. No landing was attempted.

On October 2, 1862, an expedition consisting of seven gunboats from Commodore Dupont's fleet, and escorting a
detachment of 1,500 troops, attacked the Confederate fortifications on St. John's Bluff. The Confederates soon
abandoned the works, leaving 9 guns and a considerable quantity of munitions of war, which fell into the hands of the
Federal forces.

In 1864 when the river was more under control (except for the use of torpedos by the Confederates) a major expedition
was taken up the river. On April 26, U. S. Army General Birney received information from scouts and deserters of an
intended rebel movement across the river St. Johns, and having also collected accurate details as to the localities where
cotton and cattle were to be found, left Jacksonville and ascended the river as far as Weiska, 110 miles from the mouth.
On his way up he stationed pickets at every point where the enemy could have possible crossed the river, to protect his
communication, and to guard against the laying of torpedoes. At Welaka he quitted his vessels, which, from the draft,
could get no further, and moved to the interior with a strong body of cavalry and infantry, collecting cattle and cotton,
until he reached Lake Henry, two hundred miles from Jacksonville. From there he crossed the country to Smyrna on
Mesquito inlet, where he captured two blocade runners and a large quantity of cotton. From Smyrna he proceeded
northward to St. Augustine, and from there to Jacksonville, where he arrived on Friday, May 6 after an absence of ten
days. The main result of this raid, besides a large amount of cotton, is a supply of not less than five thousand head of
cattle. No casualty occurred to mar the success of the enterprise. A number of negroes, liberated slaves, were brought
in, and a considerable band of loyal Floridians who had been hiding in the woods from the rebel conscription, joined
Gen. Birney on his march and rendered valuable assistance as guides and cattle drivers.

The following details of the raid are from a private letter written by Hon. A. G. Browne, United States Treasury agent,
who accompanied Gen. Birney as a volunteer aid and also to look after captured and abandoned rebel property:

The expedition started from Jacksonville a little before midnight on Tuesday, April 26th. The gunboat
Ottawa led the way
up the river, followed by the transport steamer
Mary Benton and Harriet Weed. The Mary Benton carried a considerable
force force of negro troops and had six large boats in tow. At
Picolata the Harriet Weed took on board a detachment of
the 75th New York and some mounted infantry. As we went up we took possession of every boat on the west side of the
St. Johns, including a small sloop which, no doubt, was the boat used by the rebels in laying torpedoes in the river. At
Welaka, which is on the east bank of the river, about ninety miles above Jacksonville, we arrived on Wednesday
afternoon and immediately landed the troops. we seized here a quantity of cotton and put it on board of one of our
steamers. The next night reached Sanders, where are quartered an old horary headed, viruient rebel, who said if he
were young he would fight us for twenty years. He has a young and very beautiful wife, and two fine children of the ages
of 11 and 13, neither of whom could read or write. The next morning we liberated the slaves of this old traitor and
confiscated use of his horses.

Passing by the house of a Union woman, a widow, we were greeted with delight by her and her daughters, one of whom
though simple and even coursely dressed, attracted a universal admiration from the army by her extraordinary personal
beauty.  

I may remark in passing that my observation of the people during this expedition has modified my previous notions of the
"Crackers." The men are generally fine looking, tall, manly fellows, and in spite of their want of education, intelligent and
clear headed. These that we met were almost all for the Union without slavery. Hundreds of these men are now hid in
the woods, many of them deserters from the rebel army. We have now about fifty of them with us as scouts and guides,
some of them splendid fellows. Gen. Barney, believes, and I agree with him, that if he has arms supplied him he can
raise men enough in East Florida to clear it of rebels and protect it from invasion. He understands these people and
knows how to manage them. "Out of my presence, and if I find you listening again to my conversation, I willl hang you to
the nearest tree," said he today in a tone of thunder and with the feect of a flash of lighting, to a suspicious sneaking
fellow, who had been prowling about headquarters, a sort of "half and half," as such fellows are here called, while the
general was talking with some Union men. He was probably a spy, and I think if the general could be satisfied on that
point he would hang him, and then sit down to his sweet potatoes and milk, as coolly as if had killed a mosquito.

The next day we were joined by a large number of Union men. We stopped for the night at the house of a farmer, a
deserter from the rebel army, who had been hiding in the woods for more than two months.

The next day we stopped at the house of a rebel beef contractor whom we had hoped to catch, but who was
unfortunately absent. We took dinner there, and as we were about to depart the general said to the rebel wife, "Madam,
are these woman your slaves?" She answered, "I suppose so, sir." "Suppose so no longer." said he, and then turning to
the two women, who, with their children were standing by: "You and your husbands and children are free, as free as this
woman, who says she supposses you are her slaves. God and the United States Government give you your freedom.
And now, madam," turning to the beef contractor's wife, "tell your husband when he comes back, that if he attempts to
run these people off I will hang him." "What shall I do without slaves?" said the lady in a subdued voice. "Hire free men
and women, hire these women and their husbands and pay them wages if they are willing to work for you. They are no
more bound to work for you than you are for them."

Much of the country through which we passed was exceedingly beautiful, park like, with charming glades, and abounding
in wild and picturesque lakes, fed by springs. We saw a great deal of game, including deer, squirrels, wild turkeys,
geese, and a variety of birds of rich plumage among them the green parroquet.

At Garden Spring, we admired the magnificent spring that gives its name to the place, with its water as clear as crystal,
and running out with such force that it carries a grist mill and extensive cotton gin, and yet appears capable of doing
much more. Our object here was to capture the proprieter, Starke, a notorious rebel, but he had removed with his slaves
and corn only a few days before. We have captured, however, nineteen bales of sea island cotton, besides as much
more unginned. At this place we met, by appointment, Col. Harris, who had crossed over from St. Augustine with a large
force of the 75th and 25th Ohio mounted infantry. A detachment of the 17th Connecticut also joined us from Volusia.

We captured next day a rebel messenger with important letters relating to blocade runners, the perusal of which
determined the general to push on rapidly to
Smyrna, Saturday evening, May 1st, where we camped. A detachment was
ordered to advance at daylight upon the place to secure the cotton stored there. A considerable quantity was captured,
and in the lagoon a short distance from the town we took two schooners, blockade runners from Nassau. They were
both crammed with cotton, and their decks were loaded with it. These vessels, the
Fannie and the Shell, were eventually
sent to Jacksonville, and the cotton taken in charge of by the treasury agency. I took passage on one of them from
Smyrna to the St. Johns river, and consequently ended thus my connection with Gen. Birney's raid. And of this raid I
wish to say in conclusion, that no enterprise was ever better planned and more thoroughly carried out. It has cleared the
county east of the St. Johns of rebels, has relieved and encouraged the Unionists of Florida, and has put into the hands
of the Government not less than $200,000 worth of property in cotton and beef cattle.

Beyond St. John's Bluff the river widens to three-quarters of a mile. Pablo Creek and Mount Pleasant Creek find their
way through the marshes from the southward in the order named, and Sister's Creek, Hannah Mills Creek, and Cedar
Point Creek from the northward in the order named. These are all navigable for several miles, but are not attractive
except to sportsmen, as they are for the most part bordered by marshes. A wooded shore, with a settlement known as
the Shipyard, borders the river for a mile above St. John's Bluff. A chain of marshy islands occupies the middle of the
river for about two miles, with Clapboard Creek and Brown's Creek on the north shore. Beyond Long Island, the last of
the marshy series, the river widens into Mill Clove, and bends to the southwest. Dame's Point Light appears about two
miles distant. This is an iron structure, painted red, with white upper works, standing on a shoal in mid-stream, with deep
water on both sides. It shows a fixed white light, visible eleven miles. A mile below the light is Yellow Bluff (P. O. New
Berlin), a village of a dozen houses, standing among trees on a bluff some thirty feet high.

Above this the stream widens to near two miles, with the channel close to the northern shore, and trends to the
northward and westward. Dunn's Creek enters from the eastward two miles above Dame's Point, with a peculiar group of
pine trees on its eastern bank. One mile farther is Drummond's Point, between Cedar Creek on the east and
Drummond's Creek on the west. Here the river turns again to the southward, and St. John's Mills is seen above two miles
distant. The stream that enters from the westward is Trout Creek. At the south side of its mouth is Sandfly Point, and
opposite, across the St. John's is Reddies Point, marshy near the water, but with high land and numerous houses
among the trees at a little distance.

The next stretch of river is about four miles, trending southward. Just south of Reddies Point is Chaseville, a small town
with a wharf. The easterly bank is high and heavily wood. Here Pottsburg Creek enters from the eastward. On the west
bank, four miles distant, is Commodore's Point, with Jacksonville showing beyond. On the south bank is the landing of
the Jacksonville, Mayport & Pablo Beach Railway & Navigation Company. Opposite Commodore's Point is Arlington
River, with the village of Arlington to the north of the mouth, and Empire Point, with General A. S. Divens' residence
opposite. Many other handsome country places line the east bank of the river in this vicinity. Rounding Commodore's
Point the city is in sight, with the bridge of the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Railway system crossing the river to
Oklahoma and South Jacksonville.

Steamers and Schooners on the River
The first steamboat had navigated the St. Johns River bar and inlet in 1829. Regular service was initiated in 1831, when
the George Washington made trips between Savannah, Jacksonville, and Picolata. Sarah
Spaulding sailed between
Jacksonville and Lake Monroe in the 1840s. The
Thorn ran to Palatka. The Darlington, Captain J. Brock, started for
service in 1852 or 1853 and ran between Jacksonville and Enterprise. In 1857
Hattie Brock and William Barnett. The
William Barnett sank when the boiler exploded killing the Captain and others. General Clinch made the run between
Jacksonville and Savannah by 1842. In 1845 regular service was started with the
Ocmulgee, St. Matthews, and William
Gaston
. The William Gaston was used on the St. Johns river in 1854 as a river boat piloted by Captain Chas Willey.
Captain Nick King captained the
Seminole between Savannah, Jacksonville and Palatka. Captain J. Freeborn piloted the
St. Johns between Savannah, Jacksonville and Palatka. In 1851 the Welaka and Magnolia were added to the
Jacksonville Savannah run. The
St. Marys started in 1857. The crew sunk the St. Marys during the Civil War and it
wasn't until March 1865 that she was raised and rebuilt. The refurbished boat was called
Nick King. In 1851 the Florida
began regular runs between Palatka, Jacksonville and Charleston. This was followed by the
Everglade, Cecile , the
Gordon and the Calhoun. The Carolina ran from Charleston to Jacksonville and Palatka. It was piloted by Captain Louis
Coxetter. The
Cecile with Captain Fenn Peck traveled the inland route between Bluffton, Beaufort, S. C. Savannah, Ga;
Fernandina Jacksonville and Picolata. In 1861 the steamer
Barroso with E. R. Ives as Captain was running from
Jacksonville to
Palatka. It also traveled to Middleburg. (The agents for this line were T. Hartidge in Jacksonville, Joseph
Ferreira,
Picolata; W. S. Harris, Tocoi; O. Duval, Palatka; T. J. Branning, Middleburg.)

In 1846 The schooner Tangier with Captain Brooks ran from Charleston to Jacksonville to Port au Prince. George
Warren with Captain Small ran from Havanna to Jacksonville.

Florida and Savannah Steam Packet
The regular Steam Packet W. M. Gaston, Capt. F. Peck, will arrive at Picolata every Friday morning at 9 a.m. on each
week, and will leave at 4 p.m. for Savannah via Mandarin, Jacksonville, St. Marys, and all other immediate landings and
arrive in Savannah early on Sunday mornings. Passengers for Charleston can leave at 8 o'clock in the evening in the
daily line of Steamers.

The Gaston runs in connection with Messrs. Washburn & Wilder's Brig Line of Packets in New York, of which one leaves
every Monday morning.

The Gaston does not return to Black Creek on her way to Savannah.

Names of Packets.
The vessels comprising this Line, will hereafter be despatched regularly every Monday as follows:

Brig
Clinton, T. Lyons, master, June 16
Brig
Augusta, A. M. Sherwood, master June 23.
New bark
Vernon, W. Ellery, master, June 30.
Brig
Savannah, A. Hawley, master, July 7,
Brig
Exact, J. Johnson, master, July 14
Brig
Excel, C. B. Smith, master, July 21

These vessels are commanded by men of much experience, who will use every exertion to render passengers as
comfortable as possible.

They will sail punctually as above, and in all cases be towed to sea by a Steamboat.
George Holmes,
Agent, Jacksonville

Berths can be secured at St. Augustine, on application to B. E. Carr & Co., Agents, July 15, 1845

After the war in 1866 the
Dictator, the Sylvan Shore and the Lizzie Baker were major carriers.  By 1873 the Lollie Boy
with W. A. Shaw as Master went from Jacksonville to Enterprise and all places in between. The Clyde line was service
between New York, Charleston, and Jacksonville. It started in November 25,  1886 with the
Cherokee. The D. H. Mount
had two voyages between Jacksonville and New York but was lost on the second voyage. In 1876 the Steamer Hampton
began daily service between Jacksonville and Palatka.

Delivering the mail
Florida and Savannah packet, via Picolata, Black Creek, Mandarin, Jacksonville, St. John's Bluff, St. Marys, Brunswick
and Darien. Carrying the U.S. Mail to the above places.

The regular packet steamer
St. Matthews, P. McNelty, master, has been thoroughly overhauled, her decks and cabins
rebuilt, and handsomely furnished and painted, and her machinery much improved. As for accommodation and comfort,
she cannot be surpassed by any boat on the route. This boat will arrive at Savannah every Thursday morning, before
the departure of the daily line of steamers for Charleston, which leave every evening.

Also passengers wishing to take passage in the brig or barque line which leaves Savannah every Thursday and
Saturday for New York, after the arrival of the
St. Matthews from Florida.

Passengers, with their baggage, will be put on board of either line, if required.

The above boat will leave as follows:
Leave
Pilatka every Tuesday, A. M. at 8 o'clock.
Picolata every Tuesday, A. M., at 11 o'clock
Black Creek every Tuesday P. M. 3 o'clock
Jacksonville every Tuesday night, 12 o'clock

For frieght or passage apply to Capt. McNelty on board, or to
Wood & Claghorn,
Agents, Savannah,
Fernandez & Bisbee,
Agents Jacksonville
John H. Gunby
Agent Black Creek

The steamer
Sarah Spalding, runs in connection with this boat, and none other, to Enterprise on Lake Monroe, one
hundred and twenty-five miles above Palatka up the St. John's river
July 5, 1845

The steam Packet,
Sarah Spalding, Capt. Robt. Anderson, having been thoroughly overhauled, her decks and cabin
rebuilt, and cabin enlarged for the accommodation of passengers, has commenced her regular trips, from
Palatka to
Enterprise, on Lake Monroe, up the St. Johns River 125 miles above Palatka.

The above Boat, leaving Palatka every Tuesday Morning, after the arrival of the U. s. Mail Steam Packet,
St. Matthews,
Captain McNelty, from Savannah, carrying the U. S. Mail to the above named places.

Passengers for Enterprise, will take the
St. Matthews every Saturday Evening, at 4 o'clock in Savannah.

The Steamer
Sarah Spalding, will run to Jacksonville, via Picolata & Mandarin, and back every trip, leaving Jacksonville
every Monday at 12 o'clock.

For freight or passage, apply to the Captain on Board, or to Fernandez & Bisbee, Agents Jacksonville.

N. B. All goods will be received in Store, free of Storage in Jacksonville & Savannah.

Visitor from Indianapolis Recalls Earlier Florida Trip. What Harold Hibben and Party Found Here in 1873 --
Difficulties at that time of Travel by Water--Now Living in Luxury on the Yacht
Huntress (Miami Herald, March 17, 1916)
Harold Hibben, Sr., of Indianapolis, Ind., and his son, Dr. Freeman H. Hibben, of Boston, Mass, who have been spending
several weeks at the Royal Palm, have chartered the yacht
Huntress for a three weeks cruise through the interior of the
state. The party will come out in the gulf and will travel around the peninsula by way of the keys and will return to this city
some time in April.

The approximate course will be from here to Ft. Lauderdale, thence by the drainage canal to Lake Okeechobee and
down the Caloosakatchee river which is said to be the most picturesque in Florida. At Fort Myers the party will enter the
Gulf and will proceed down through Gulf keys, stopping at Long Key Fishing Camp. From this point Mr. Hibben and his
son, will turn north on the Atlantic coast, and proceed to Miami.

The length of the voyage will depend largely on the weather and the number of stops made on the way. but the
gentlemen do not expect to reach Miami within three weeks.

It is their ambition to enjoy both fresh and salt water fishing with also the hope of capturing an alligator, or a crocodile or
two. They will spend several days at Bora Grande and the Gasparilla Islands, the home of Captain Welsh, where there is
said to be abundance of tarpon.

Enthusiastic Hoosier.
Mr. Hibben, Sr., is one of the large number of enthusiastic visitors from Indiana who have spent a part of the winter in
Miami. At his home Indianapolis, he is of the wholesale drygoods firm of Hibben, Hollweg & Company, and is also
connected with other of that city's activities, being vice-president of the Union Traction Company, one of Indiana's
largest systems, having approximately 459 miles of road. He is also director in the Indianapolis Street Railway and vice-
president of the Indiana Hotel Company, owners of the Claypool Hotel, one of the largest and best-known hotels in the
central west.

Florida in 1873.
Mr. Hibben told a Herald reporter an interesting story of an early visit to Florida, in 1873, when he accompanied his
father the late J. S. Hibben, and a party of prominent Indianapolis business men through the northern part of the state
and along the east coast.

There being few railroads at that time most of the traveling was done by water while hotel accommodations were scant.

"To reach St. Augustine from
Jacksonville or Green Cove Springs," said Mr. Hibben, "required passage on a steamer up
the St. John's River to a landing called
Tocoi, the same being situated a few miles north of Palatka. on the opposite
band of the river. Here a horse-car, similar to the present day small street car and drawn by mules or horses, over a
track made by the use of a flat wooden stringer laid on the ties and topped with flat bar iron, was taken.

"Leaving
Jacksonville at 7:30 a.m. it was a matter of congratuation if St. Augustine could be reached by 6 to 9'clock p.
m., dependent on the disposition of the motive power and weather or not, recent weather conditions had warped the
ends of the stringers on which the cars ran; a trip to St. Augustine, from
Jacksonville now consumes approximately one
hour."

"At that time almost all traveling was along the St. John's River. Three or four boats were often required to wait an
opportunity of landing at the wharf and frequently at
Green Cove Springs were to be seen six to nine boats, comprising
one to three good sized steamers, which had come down from New York by sea. One of these was the well-known
"City
Point
" together with three or four good sized river boats, such as the "Starlight" with a like quantity of smaller side and
stern wheelers, making a total of six or eight passenger carrying vessels very often the hotel proprietors stood at the
end of the wharf and advised the passengers to remain aboard as no accommodations could be had in the town. These
conditions were prevalent at
Palatka, Enterprise, Melonville and all along the river.

There was a great abundance of game and wild life all through the sections east and south of St. John's; alligator, deer,
turkey, wild duck, white and blue heron and many species of birds were quite numerous." said Mr. Hibben who recalled
that he carried home, in the spring of '74, skins of the pink cutlew and puroquet obtained on the lower St. Lucie and
Indian rivers and that he obtained his first, wild turkey on the 30th of December, 1874, upon Black Creek, an affluent of
the St. John's situated between
Jacksonville and Green Cove Springs.

In March, 1874, Mr. Flagler, of Indianapolis, together with Colonel Hart, of Palatka, then, as now interested in the
Ocklawaha Line, and many river boats and also the owner of the fine, old orange grove at Palatka, hown as Hart's
Grove, chargered the little stern wheel steamer"Okahumkee," or possibily the "Pansoffkey," for a ten days trip on the
upper St. John's and Ocklawaha, which was then one of he bright spots in Florida. The party secured many alligators,
waterfowl and beautiful plumaged birds.

Burnside Beach
is largely frequented by excursionists from Jacksonville and the interior (Palmetto Hotel, $7 to $10 a week). The beach is
at present making slowly out to seaward, so that there is quite a stretch of dry sand before the hard, level, wave-washed
bathing-beach can be reached.

Mayport
Mayport, at the mouth of the St. John's River, is so called from the name given by the French, in 1562, "La Riviere de
Mai," before the Spaniards took possession. There is no large hotel in the place, but meals and rooms can be had at
the Burrows House, near the railroad.

The town has about five hundred inhabitants. (1892) There is much picturesque life to be seen along shore among the
fishermen and men engaged in constructing mattresses for the jetties. Toward the sea-beach are numerous summer
cottages, belonging, for the most part, to city residents. From the lighthouse a good view of the river is obtainable.

The fishing industry at Mayport is of considerable importance. Shad begin running up the river as early as January, and
are taken in seines in large quantities; as many as ten thousand are said to have been taken in one day. There is a
tradition among fishermen at the river mouth that shad are never known to go to sea again. At all events, that they are
never taken going out. Some of the fishermen believe that the shad perish in the upper reaches of the river. The shad
season continues till April, and, when perfectly fresh from the water, the fish compare favorably with their Northern
brethren.  

The conspicuous group of buildings on a large shell mount on the opposite side of the river is a mill for grinding shells
for fertilizing purposes. It is possible sometimes to purchase Indian relics from the superintendent or workmen, but the
supply is very uncertain. Small boats may be hired at Mayport or Pilot Town, with or without attendants, to explore the
neighboring shore and inlets.

Jacksonville
Population (1890), 17,160. - Lat 30 degrees 24 minutes N. - Long 81 degree 40 minutes W.

Hotels - rates are given by the day unless otherwise stated. Where rates are omitted no reply to inquiry has been
received.) Carleton Hotel, $3 a day upward; restaurant a la carte - Duval. - Everett. - Grand View - Glenda $3 to $3.50 -
Hotel Togni, $2 - Lafayette. - Oxford. - St. James Hotel, $4 - Tremont House. - Windsor Hotel, $4 and $5.

Special rates are usually made for permanent guests, or by the week. Besides the hotels there are nearly 100 boarding-
houses, at $8 to $15 a week.

Railroads, Steamboats, etc.
Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West System (to St. Augustine, Indian River, Tampa, Punta Gorda, etc.) Station foot of
Bridge St.

Florida Central & Peninsula Railway (to Tallahassee, Pensacola, Fernandina, Cedar Key, Orlando, etc.) Station foot of
Bridge St.

Savannah, Florida & Western Railway (Waycross Short Line). Station foot of Bridge St.

Jacksonville, Mayport & Pablo Railway of Navigation Co (to Mayport and Burnside Beach). Ferry from foot of Market St.

Jacksonville & Atlantic Railroad (to Pablo Beach). Ferry from foot of Newnan St.

People's Line (St. John's River Steamers). Astor's wharf, foot of Hogan St.

De Bary Line (St. John's River Steamers). Foot of Laura St.

Beach & Miller Line (to Fort George, Mayport, etc.). Tyson &  Co.'s wharf, foot of Pine St.

Clyde Line (New York, Charleston & Florida Steamship Co). Astor's wharf, foot of Hogan St.

Tramways, with cars at five minute intervals, run through Bay St. Eastward, two miles to the river bank below
Commodore's Point, where there are a race-course and one or two hotels, mainly for transient resort. Good view across
and down the river. Westward the Bay Street line crosses McCoy's Creek into the suburbs. A cross-town line runs out
Pine St., to the Sub-tropical Exposition grounds and beyond, and another out Laura St., two miles to the suburbs of
Somerville and Warren; uniform fare, 5 cents.

Carriage rate from railroad stations and steamboat landings to any part of city 25 cents; luggage 25 cents per piece.

Livery. - Carriages and saddle-horses may usually be best engaged through the hotel clerk; there are, however, many
excellent livery stables where, if desired, special terms may be made. The following are approximately the prevailing
rates: Saddle-horses, 75 cents to $1.50 an hour, $3 a day; single teams, $1.50 an hour, $5 a day. Special bargains
must be made for steam launches and the like, or for protracted expeditions.

Jacksonville to Palatka by River. (A Handbook of Florida, Norton, 1890)
This part of the St. John's River is in effect almost a continuous lake, often several miles wide, and again narrowing to
less than a mile. As a rule, the banks are somewhat monotonous, through there is always more or less of interest in the
changing vegetation along the shores and in the varied forms of life almost always to be seen in air or water. Shooting is
very properly prohibited on all passenger steamers. Formerly it was carried to such excess that the river trip was often a
continuous fusillade. Several accidents, one of which resulted fatally, at last compelled a reform of the abuse.

Just above the railroad drawbridge at Jacksonville the river bends abruptly to the southward, between Grassy Point on
the east and Lancaster Point on the west. The cluster of three piles, painted red, marks the lower end of the Middle
Ground Shoal. to the eastward are the wooded bluffs of Villa Alexandria, one of the finest private estates in the
neighborhood of
Jacksonville.

A  triangular red beacon bearing a red light at night marks the upper end of the Middle Ground Shoal. On the east bank,
two miles above Grassy Point, is Phillip's Point, with a steamboat landing. Nearly opposite, on the west bank, is the
mouth of McGirt's Creek, and just above it Sadler's Point. Three and a half miles farther south is Piney Point, marked by
tall pines showing above the surrounding trees. Just above Piney Point, on the same side of the river, is the settlement
and landing of Black Point, and nearly opposite is the mouth of Goodsby's Creek. The next landing and settlement south
of Black Point is Mulberry Grove, and across the river, nearly opposite, is Beauclere Bluff, a conspicuous, heavily
wooded promontory, off which stands a black beacon (No. 21).

two miles above this is Mandarin Point, and on the same side are the town and landing of Mandarin, formerly the
residence of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. A little above Mandarin a black and red buoy marks the wreck of the steamer
Maple Leaf (See Mandarin), and nearly opposite, just north of the entrance to Doctor's Lake is Orange Park, with a long
wharf reaching out to the channel.

The next reach in the river is from Mandarin on the east to Magnolia Point on the west bank (six and one-half miles)
averaging one and one-half miles to two miles in width. Julington and Cunningham's Creeks enter on the east bank.
Four miles farther south on the same side is New Switzerland Point, heavily wooded and identified by a single tree
standing out beyond the rest. Opposite, on the west bank, is Hibernia, above which, one mile and three-quarters, is the
mouth of Black Creek (navigable to Middleburg, some eight miles in the interior) and Magnolia Point a high bluff bank
with heavy woods. On the east bank, nearly opposite, is Popo Point, with Remington Park and a steamboat landing.

Turning Magnolia Point a reach of six miles opens southeast to Six Mile Point. On the west bank, two and three-quarter
miles distant, are the hotels and many buildings of Green Cove Springs. Above this landing, one mile and three-
quarters, is red beacon No. 38, marking Old Field Point on the west and San Patricio Point on the east bank. South of
the last named point a deep bight makes in, called Hogarth's Bay, into which empties Six Mile Creek. Beyond this the
river narrows to a mile as far as Picolata Point, and the town of Picolata on the east bank. At this place, and at a point
on the opposite side of the river, forts were maintained during the period of Spanish rule. They were successfully
defended against the English under Oglethorpe in December, 1739, but were taken in January following as preliminary
to the siege of St. Augustine. The remains of the earthworks can still be traced. but they are not easily found by a
stranger.

From Picolata Point the river is nearly straight for ten miles to Federal Point on the east bank. It varies in width from
three-quarters of a mile to two and one-half miles. Three miles south of Picolata are Orange Point, Tocoi Creek, and
Tocoi, in the order named. The twon is the terminus of the St. John's Railway, 18 miles to St. Augustine. Racey's Point is
three miles above Tocoi, on the same side of the river. Nearly opposite, entering from the westward, is Cedar Creek,
and above this on the west bank is Nine Mile Point, off which stands red beacon No. 44. One mile farther south is
Palmetto Bluff. Federal Point on the east bank may identified by black buoy 35, which is placed a little to the north of the
landing.

From Federal Point to Dancy's Point, south by west three and one-half miles, the river is about a mile wide. Opposite the
town of Orange Mills is an extensive flat island, or marsh, with a channel on either side. On the west bank are Bodine's
Point and Whetstone Point, in the order named. Off the latter is a cluster of three piles, with a red light set at night.
Another stretch of thre and three-quarter miles west southwest brings us up with Forrester's Point on the east bank and
the mouth of Rice's Creek opposite, where with a sharp sweep to south by east, Palatka comes in sight with its railroad
bridge three miles distant.

Distances to points on the St. Johns river from Jacksonville
This part of the St. John's River is in effect almost a continuous lake, often several miles wide, and again narrowing to
less than a mile.

Just above the railroad drawbridge at Jacksonville the river bends abruptly to the southward, between Grassy Point on
the east and Lancaster Point on the west. The cluster of three piles painted red, marks the lower end of the Middle
Ground Shoal. To the eastward are the wooded bluffs of Villa Alexandria, one of the finest private estates in the
neighborhood of Jacksonville.

A triangular red beacon bearing a red light at night marks the upper end of the Middle Ground Shoal. On the east bank,
two miles above Grassy Point, is Phillip's Point, with a steamboat landing. Nearly opposite, on the west bank, is the
mouth of McGirt's Creek, and just above it Sadler's Point. Three and a half miles farther south is Piney Point, marked by
tall pines showing above the surrounding trees. Just above Piney Point, on the same side of the river, is the settlement
and landing of Black Point, and nearly opposite is the mouth of Goodsby's Creek. The next landing and settlement south
of Black Point is Mulberry Grove, and across the river, nearly opposite, is Beauclerc Bluff, a conspicuous, heavily
wooded promontory, off which stands a black beacon.  

St. Nicholas, E....................................Mile 2
Riverside, W.......................................Mile 3
Black Point, W....................................Mile 10
Mulberry Grove, W.............................Mile 12

Mandarin, E........................................Mile 15
Two miles above this is Mandarin Point, and on the same side are the town and landing of Mandarin, formerly the
residence of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. A little above Mandarin a black and red buoy marks the wreck of the steamer
Maple Leaf.

Orange Park, W..................................Mile 15
Just north of the entrance to Doctor's Lake is Orange Park, with a long wharf reaching out to the channel.

Fruit Cove, E...................................... Mile 19

Hibernia, W...........................................Mile 23
Opposite New Switzerland is Hibernia, above which, one mile and three-quarters is the mouth of Black Creek (navigable
to Middleburg, some eight miles in the interior)

New Switzerland, E..............................Mile 23
Julington and Cunningham's Creeks enter on the east bank. Four miles farther south on the same side is New
Switzerland Point, heavily wooded and identified by a single tree standing out beyond the rest.

Remington Park, E..............................Mile 25
On the east bank nearly opposite Magnolia Point is Popo Point, with Remington Park and a steamboat landing.

Magnolia, W........................................Mile 28

Green Cove Springs, W......................Mile 30
On the west bank are the hotels and many buildings of Green Cove Springs. Above this landing, one mile and three-
quarters, is red beacon No. 38, marking Old Field Point on the west and San Patricio Point on the east bank. South of
the last named point a deep bight make in, called Hogarth's Bay, into which empties Six Mile Creek.

Population, 1200 (1892). Twenty-nine miles from Jacksonville, twenty-seven miles from Palatka.
Hotels - Clare, $3 to $4 -Clarendon, $4 a day. - Morganza, $1.50 to $2 a day. - St. Clair, $3 to $4 - The Pines, $3 a day.
The Pines, $3 a day. Also several smaller hotels and boarding-houses
Railroads and Steamboats - Several trains north and south daily by J. T. & K. W. Ry. All the St. John's River steamboats
touch at this landing.

This town has been for many years a place of considerable resort, owing to its fine sulphur springs, and the natural
advantages of it's situation. Even as seen from the windows of a passing train its attractions are evident, for
considerable labor has been expended in laying out streets, fencing off parks with massive pine logs, and removing
evidences of recent clearing.

A short walk or ride from the station brings the visitor to Magnolia Avenue, the business street of the place. A short
distance farther is the great spring, which discharges three thousand gallons of water every minute, at a temperature of
78 degrees F., the year round. The wonderful purity of the water, its green, mysterious depths, reflections and colors
are a source of never-ending pleasure. The water is slightly impregnated with sulphur, but loses it by evaporation after a
short exposure to the air. Excellent bathing arrangements have been provided, and comfortable rustic seats are found
at almost every turn. Borden Park, including about five acres, lies along the river on high ground with its native growth of
magnolia, live oak, and palmetto, the rubbish only having been cleared away. It is private property, but open to the
public, though a quaint inscription posted at the entrance may properly prove discouraging to vandals.

Green Cove Springs contains many charming winter residences, some of them surrounded with carefully tended
gardens full of horticultural rarities, and most attractive to visitors from a colder climate.

The town itself contains churches of all the leading denominations, schools, stores, livery stables tram ways. Excursions
may be made by boat up the river as far as Palatka or down as far as Jacksonville, returning by boat or rail the same
day, and on both sides of the river there are many points of interest easily within reach.

Orange Dale, E...................................Mile 34
Hogarth's Landing, E...........................Mile 38

Picolata, E...........................................Mile 44
The river narrows to a mile as far as Picolata Point, and the town of Picolata on the east bank. At this place, and at a
point on the opposite side of the river, forts were maintained during the period of Spanish rule. They were successfully
defended against the English under Oglethorpe in December, 1739, but were taken in January following as preliminary
to the siege of St. Augustine. The remains of the earthworks can still be traced, but they are not easily found by a
strange.

Tocoi, E...............................................Mile 46
From Picolata Point the river is nearly straight for ten miles to Federal Point on the east bank. It varies in width from
three-quarters of a mile to two and one-half miles. Three miles south of Picolata are Orange Point, Tocoi Creek, and
Tocoi, in the order named. The town is the terminus of the St. John's Railway, 18 miles to St. Augustine. Racey's Point is
three miles above Tocoi, on the same side of the river. Nearly opposite, entering from the westward, is Cedar Creek,
and above this on the west bank is Nine Mile Point, off which stands red beacon No. 44. One mile farther south is
Palmetto Bluff.

Federal Point, E...................................Mile 58
Federal Point on the east bank may be identified by black buoy 35, which is placed a little to the north of the landing.

Orange Mills, E....................................Mile 63
Opposite the town of Orange Mills is an extensive flat island, or marsh, with a channel on either side. On the west bank
are Bodine's Point and Whetstone Point, in the order named.

Cook's Landing, E................................Mile 65

Dancy's Wharf, E .................................Mile 66
From Federal Point to Dancy's Point, south by west three and one-half miles, the river is about a mile wide.

Russell's Point, E..................................Mile 67
Whetstone, W.......................................Mile 68
Russell's Landing, E.............................Mile 69

Palatka, W............................................Mile 75
Above the drawbridge at Palatka lies the most interesting part of the St. John's River. Here the stream loses its
lacustrine character and becomes comparatively narrow and swift, and so crooked that the distance to Sanford is nearly
double that by rail. A good view of Hart's Orange Grove is obtained in passing.

Population 6,000 - Lat. 29 degrees 38 minutes N. - Long. 81 degrees 38 minutes W.
Hotels - Arlington, $2. - Canova, $1.50 - Winthrop, $3 - Kean Building, Rooms 50 cents - Putnam House, $4 - Saratoga,
$3. - West End House, $2; $8 to $10 by week.

Railroads, Steamboats, etc. - The J. T. & K. W. system (to Jacksonville, St. Augustine, Daytona, Gainesville, Tampa,
Punta Gorda etc.). Stations for points north and south, 1 mile west from river; station for points on seacoast, etc., near
steamboat wharf and railroad bridge. Through cars are run around the city, making connections without change.
Steamboats - All the St. Johns River steamboats land at the wharf near the railroad bridge. Ocklawaha steamboats land
at the same wharf.

Carriage fare from railways and steamboats, 25 cents to any part of the city; luggage, 25 cents per piece.

Livery - Saddle-horses; $1.50 a day if reasonably used. Double teams, $2 an hour, $5 a day.

Rowboats 25 cents an hours, $1.50 to $2 a day. Sail-boats 50 cents an hour, $3 a day. Steam launches can be
chartered for $15 to $25 a day, according to size of party and length of intended trip.

Guides for hunting or fishing may be engaged at the hotels or boat landings at $2.50 to $3 a day.

Tram-cars at 10 minute intervals run between the railroad stations, fare 5 cents.

Palatka was settled in 1821, by James Marver and two companions named Hine and Woodruff. They secured a Spanish
grant and established a trading post for traffic with the Indians. Marver's store stood near the foot of Main Street, and no
doubt the large live oaks on the bluff close at hand witnessed many a sharp bargain that brought gold into the white
man's pocket. He was, however, a great favorite with his savage patrons, and had no difficulties with them during his
stay.

At some date not precisely fixed Dr. N. Brush, of New York, purchased Marver's lands and interests and continued the
business, his two nephews, Thomas and William Brush, being his agents. The post was sacked and burned promptly on
the outbreak of the Seminole War in 1835, and the young men barely escaped with their lives.

A military post was soon afterward established here, and in 1840 it was constituted a regular ordinance depot, with the
barracks and shops necessary for a considerable garrison and for the repair of their arms and equipments. Eight large
log block-houses were constructed along the line of Water Street, one of them with a with a watch-tower eighty feet high.
The commanding officer's head-quarters were where the late Colonel Devall's house now stand. Cavalry stables for four
hundred horses occupied the site of the Putnam House and a large hospital was erected on the Hart property. Among
the officers quartered here were Scott, Taylor, Worth, and Gaines, who won distinction and rank in the second war with
Great Britain and in the early Indian war. Still younger were lieutenants W. T. Sherman, and Silas Casey, who saw their
first field service in Florida and rose to the highest rank during the Civil War.

After the subjugation of the Indians and the discontinuance of the military post, Palatka became the shipping point for
the produce of the neighboring country. Prior to the completion of the railroad in 1886 it was the most southerly landing
of any importance on the river, and soon became a favorite resort for invalids who sought a warmer climate and
dreaded the cold easterly winds of the coast. By 1850 it was a delightful place of residence, with many handsome
houses, some of which are still the finest in town.

It's commercial prosperity did not begin until after the Civil War, when it became the distributing centre for a wide tract of
rich country, and with the advent of the railroad in 1886 became the busy and prosperous place that now exists. It
suffered the fate of nearly all Florida towns, and was nearly destroyed by fire. Like its sisters, however, it rallied pluckily
from the disaster and was rebuilt on a more substantial basis. It may now be reached in thirty-six hours from New York
and will, no doubt, long maintain its position as the most important town on the river above Jacksonville.

Palatka to Sanford by River. (Handbook of Florida, Norton, 1890)
One hundred and twenty miles (about 8 hours by daylight, 12 hours by night).

Above the drawbridge at Palatka lies the most interesting part of the St. John's River. Here the stream loses its
lacustrine character and becomes comparatively narrow and swift, and so crooked that the distance to Sanford is nearly
double that by rail. Local time-tables should be consulted so as to secure a trip one way or the other by daylight. The
night trip, however, is by no means devoid of interest, for the boats carry brilliant headlights which produce striking and
novel effects along the densely wooded shores. A good view of Hart's Orange Grove is obtained in passing. The vicinity
of Rolleston was early settled by English pioneers, but was abandoned when the Spaniards resumed control in 1784.

A little above Westonia is the mouth of Dunns Creek, the navigable outlet of Crescent Lake, and at Buffalo Bluff is the
railroad drawbridge. Nearly opposite Beecher is the mouth of the Ocklawaha River.

Beyond Fort Gates, a military post during the Indian wars, is the outlet of Lake George. The small island to the westward
is Hog Island; the large one is Drayton Island, containing 1,870 acres of remarkably productive soil, underlaid with beds
of carbonate and phosphate marl. The island was settled by R. W. Towle, in 1875, and now has a well-to-do
populationof about one hundred and fifty. Orange culture is very successful on the island, owing to the protection
afforded by the surrounding waters, and the inhabitants say that even the severe frost of 1886 passed over the island
without doing any harm.

On the west shore is the outlet of Lake Kerr, a beautiful, irregular body of water, with two towns on its shores. Lake
George, eighteen miles long, affords an agreeable change from the narrow, winding stream, but in a short time the
southern inlet is reached, and shortly afterward Volusia, the site of one of the early Spanish Missions. From De Land
Landing is a short branch railroad to the county town.

Blue Spring Landing takes its name from a fine spring that boils up from unknown depths a few rods from the river bank.
To visit the spring it is necessary to pass through private grounds, for which permission should be asked. From this
landing the Atlantic & Western Railroad extends eastward to New Smyrna on the sea-coast.

A considerable stream joins the St. John's on the west side about six miles above Blue Spring. It is the Kissimmee River,
but has no connection with the large river of that name farther south. Passing through the last drawbridge on the St.
John's, Lake Monroe opens to the eastward with the distant buildings of Sanford and Enterprise visible among the tall
palms on the opposite shores.

Hart's Orange Grove, E........................Mile 75
Hart's Orange Grove, one of the oldest and most famous groves in the State, is on the opposite side of the river, about
three miles from the wharves. It is easily reached by boat from the foot of Main Street. This grove was budded on wild
stock about 1832, was badly damaged by the severe frost of 1835, and began bearing about 1845. It covers some 70
acres of land, contains about 500 trees, and yields about 12,000 boxes of oranges annually.

Rolleston, E..........................................Mile 78
The vicinity of Rolleston was early settled by English pioneers, but was abandoned when the Spaniards resumed control
in 1784.

San Mateo, E........................................Mile 79
Edgewater, E.........................................Mile 80

Buffalo Bluff, W......................................Mile 87
At Buffalo Bluff is the railroad drawbridge.

Horse Landing, W..................................Mile 96
Nashua, E..............................................Mile 95
Smith's Landing, E.................................Mile 96
Welaka, E..............................................Mile 100

Beecher, E.............................................Mile 101
Nearly opposite Beecher is the mouth of the Ocklawaha River.

Norwalk, W.............................................Mile 103
Mount Royal, E......................................Mile 105
Fruitland, E..........................................Mile 105

Fort Gates, W........................................Mile 106
Beyond Fort Gates, a military post during the Indian wars, is the outlet of Lake George. The small island to the westward
is Hog Island; the larger one is Drayton Island, containing 1,870 acres of remarkably productive soil, underlaid with beds
of carbonate and phosphate marl. The island was settled by R. W. Towle, in 1875 and now (1895) has a population of
about one hundred and fifty.

Pelham Park, E......................................Mile 112
Racemo, E.............................................Mile 112
Georgetown, E.......................................Mile 113
Orange Point, E.....................................Mile 113

Lake George, E......................................Mile 115
Lake George, eighteen miles long, affords an agreeable change from the narrow, winding stream, but in a short time the
southern inlet is reached.

Drayton Island, W...................................Mile 116
Salt Springs, W.......................................Mile 119
Benella, W..............................................Mile 120

Seville, E.................................................Mile 120
Population, 400 (1892)
Hotels - The Seville, $3.50 a day; special rates by week or month. -- The Grand View.
Seville, with its tasteful and characteristic log-built station, and its palm- and orange-lined main street, at once attracts
the eye of the Northern traveller, if only by a casual glance from the car window. The town is, in fact, one of the most
attractive in Florida, owing to judicious and liberal outlay of money in providing a complete system of sewerage and a
water-supply drawn from a neighboring lake. The sewage is received in tanks, where the solids are precipitated by
chemical action, and the liquids are carried off through subsoil pipes to the neighboring fields. The works were planned
by Mr. J. J. Powers, late Sanitary Engineer of Brooklyn, N. Y. and are identical in plan of construction with those that
solved the very perplexing problem of sewerage at Coney Island, N. Y.

Yellow Bluff, W........................................Mile 121
Spring Garden, E....................................Mile 122
Spring Grove, E......................................Mile 126
Lake View, E...........................................Mile 132

Volusia, E...............................................Mile 134
Volusia was the site of one of the early Spanish Missions.

Astor, W..................................................Mile 134
Manhattan, W.........................................Mile 136
Fort Butler, W..........................................Mile 138
Orange Bluff, E.......................................Mile 140
Bluffton, E...............................................Mile 140
St. Francis, W.........................................Mile 155
Old Town, W...........................................Mile 156
Crow's Landing, W..................................Mile 159
Hawkinsville, W.......................................Mile 160
Cabbage Bluff, E.....................................Mile 162

De Land Landing, E................................Mile 163
From De Land Landing is a short branch railroad to the county town. (See
DeLand)

Lake Beresford, E...................................Mile 168

Blue Spring, E.........................................Mile 168
Blue Spring Landing takes its name from a fine spring that boils up from unknown depths a few rods from the river bank.
To visit the spring it is necessary to pass through private grounds, for which permission should be asked. From this
landing the Atlantic & Western Railroad extends eastward to New Smyrna on the sea-coast.

Wekiva, E................................................Mile 184
Shell Bank, E...........................................Mile 163

Lake Monroe - is nearly circular in shape, six miles long, a little more than five miles wide, and with an average depth of
about twelve feet. Sanford and Enterprise are the only two towns on its shore. The fishing for bass and the other fresh-
water varieties of fish is good in all parts of the lake, but of course the fish have their favorite feeding-grounds, and until
these are ascertained there is little use in fishing. The shores of the lake are for the most part wild, and covered with a
heavy growth of forest and saw palmetto. Deer and turkeys are found within a few miles of the lake, and even along is
less frequented boarders, but without a guide and trained dogs it is nearly impossible to shoot them. Above Lake
Monroe the river is not regularly navigated, through it is practicable for good sized launches. It winds for the most part
among vast stretches of savannah and saw grass occasionally spreading into large lakes, as Harney, Jessup, Poinsett,
Winder, and Washington. It is often a very difficult to decide which is the true river channel, but when found the stream is
easily navigable and the upper lakes are so near the Indian River at Rockledge and Eau Gallie that carries are easily
made across the intervening hammock. The upper St. John's should not be attempted save in a boat that will serve as a
sleeping place at a pinch, for there are often long stretches of morass where it is impossible to camp comfortably on
shore.

Sanford, W..............................................Mile 195
Population 3,500 (1895) Lat. 28 degree 50 N. --Long. 81 degree 17 W.
Hotels -- The Sanford House, $3 to $4 a day. -- San Leon Hotel, $2 to $2.50 a day.
Railroads, Steamboats, etc. Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Railway, north to Jacksonville and east to Indian River.
South Florida Railroad, south to Tampa, Punta Gorda, and Gulf steamship lines.
Sanford & Lake Eustis Railway, west to Tavares, Leesburg, etc.
Sanford & Indian River Railway, southeast to Lake Charm.
The Orange Belt Railway, southwest to Tarpon Springs and the Pinellas Peninsula.
All these roads use a station in common near the hotels and business streets. Restaurant in station.
Steamboats - The steamboat wharf is five minutes' walk east of the Sanford House. There are daily boats to and from
Jacksonville and intermediate landings.
Carriage rates from station or landing, 25 cents: luggage, 25 cents, per piece.
Livery - Saddle horses, 75 cents to $1 an hour, $2 to $3 a day. Double teams, $5 a day.
Guides for hunting and fishing, $5 a day with dogs and outfit.
Sanford is pleasantly situated on the south shore of Lake Monroe, the land rising from the water level in a gentle slope
sufficient for effectual drainage. The town is named after General H. S. Sanford, late United States Minister to Belgium.

Mellonville, W..........................................Mile 196
Enterprise, E...........................................Mile 200

The Late Capt. Fitzgerald (The Florida Star, April 2, 1909)
Captain James W. Fitzgerald, one of the pioneers of steamboating in Florida, died recently at the age of 67. As long as
35 years ago he was identified with steamboating in this state, being master of the steamers
City Point and Lizzie Baker,
plying between Charleston, Savannah,
Jacksonville and Palatka. He built the steamer H. B. Plant and operated that line
of steamers later on the St. Johns River. Capt. Fitzgerald was also superintendent of the Plant steamship line, operating
between Tampa and Cuba and when that line passed into the hands of Mr. Flagler and A. C. L. retained Capt.
Fitzgerald as superintenedent of its steamship lines in Florida until his death.

He is survived by one son, D. D. Fitzgerald; two daughters, Mrs. Edith Denham, of Pensacola, and Miss Jane Fitzgerald,
of Port Tampa; two brothers, Edward B. Fitzgerald, of Savannah, and Capt. John Fitzgerald, of Port Tampa, and two
sisters, Mrs. M. A. Decker, of Port Tampa, and Mrs. R. B. Adams, of Boston.
Custom Search
St. Johns River
St. Johns River
Federal Point
Green Cove Springs
Orange Mills
Picolata
Crescent City
Jacksonville
Lake Helen
Mayport
Black Point
Piney Point
Orange Park
Mandarin
Hibernia
Tocoi
Magnolia Springs
Green Cove Springs
West Tocoi
Clay's Landing
Rolleston
San Mateo
Enterprise
New Switzerland
Fruit Cove
Buena Vista
Welaka
Beecher
Volusia
Blue Spring
Enterprise
Palatka
   
Like us on Facebook
St. Johns River North of Palatka
1876
Enlarged
St. Johns River South of Palatka
1876
Enlarged
For Sale.
The Subscriber offers for sale, all that fine tract of Land, with
the buildings thereon, situated at Dames' Point, on the river St.
Johns, about 12 miles Jacksonville. the buildings comprise a
good dwelling house of one sory, lathed and plastered,
together with several out houses.-- The situation is elevated
and healthy, and to any one desirous of purchasing a good
farm the place will be sold at a bargain.

Henrietta Barnard.
Jacksonville, March 26th, 1847.