Miss Susan Walker
Trip to Port Royal and First Days
March 3, 1862

Journal of Miss Susan Walker
Return to Port Royal Experiment

The following article was published December, 1887, in the Lowell, Mass., Courier:

"A Remarkable Woman.
The Useful Career of Miss Susan Walker Her Work for the Freedmen.

The death of Miss Susan Walker, which occurred in Washington, D. C., on the 13th inst., has removed from earth a lady
who, through her somewhat remarkable career of life, her interest and activity in the political and educational questions
which were prominent in the country's agitation a quarter of a century ago, has attached her name and fame [sic],
and rendered herself in no small degree conspicuous for her many eminent traits of character and brilliant successes in
the line of duty which she early marked out to pursue.

Miss Walker was born in Wilmington, Mass., February 14, 1811, and was the daughter of Benjamin and Susannah
Walker of that town. She was a sister of the late Benjamin Walker, one of the early settlers of the city of Lowell, and
active in both its city and town affairs, being for several years a selectman and also a member of the first board of
aldermen when Lowell became a city.

The Washington correspondent of the
New York Tribune pays the following tribute to Miss Walker's memory : Miss
Susan Walker is dead, and yesterday she was buried with something of civic honors. She was so celebrated as
philanthropist, politician, mathematician, and "strong-minded" woman in the best sense of that somewhat overworked
phrase, that her friends in the Unitarian church were joined by pall-bearers assigned from the different departments S. I.
Kimball, superintendent of the life-saving service; A. B. Johnson, chief clerk of the lighthouse board; Dr. C. A. White,
chief paleontologist of the Smithsonian institute, and Prof. Henry Garnett, head of the topographical corps of the
geological survey. Her life was a romance and her death a tragedy. A highly-educated young woman from
Massachusetts, a fervent abolitionist, and of a highly respectable family, she early made the acquaintance of public men
and became known as an influential partisan, and an associate of Sumner, Andrew, Phillips, Garrison, and Greeley. In
1858 in Paris, she occupied the first floor of a hotel where Senator Sumner in the entresol was undergoing the terrible
treatment of moxa for the injuries received from Preston L. Brooks, and she made herself his constant and useful
companion. At the beginning of the war she came to this city, and subsequently established what is now known as
"Brewster Cottage," in the Le Droit suburb, although originally a colored female industrial school, which was under Miss
Walker's charge, averaging not less than 70 pupils. Here also many important conferences were held in relation to the
policy of caring for and educating freed women.

Miss Walker was, for years, employed by the coast survey office, then under charge of her brother, Sears Cook Walker,
as a mathematical expert, making computations of an elaborate and difficult character. . . .

During the war Miss Walker was well known as a leader in the care of soldiers and the education of the freedmen.
Several of the measures providing for the latter owe their success directly to her. Sumner, Seward,
Chase, Wade,
Stanton, Hale, Love joy and Coifax were among her chief advisers and with whom she held frequent consultations. . . .
Another brother was Judge Timothy Walker of Cincinnati, an eminent lawyer and author of "
Walker's Introduction to
American Law
." . . . She was a woman of somewhat masculine appearance, with a large frame, dominated
by a powerful intellect, and unusually quick sympathies."

Port Royal Diary
March 3d 1862
at 9 o'clock A. M. left Canal St. wharf in N Y in Steamship Atlantic Captain Eldridge for
Port Royal.

The previous day Sunday it was necessary to see the Collector, Mr. Barney, 18 and secure a pass. He appointed 7
o'clock in the evening to receive all who were approved by U. S. Government and Boston and New York associations
as suitable persons to go to Port Royal to look after the freed men and women there.

We were 52 in all only 12 ladies under charge of
Rev. Mansfield French.  The others were gentlemen selected by
E. L. Pierce  who also accompanied us as special Government Agent.

.We all took a solemn oath of allegiance to U. S. Government and then received each a pass. This has been no easy
matter to accomplish. My whole Sunday had to be given to it.
Secretary Chase had given me a pass, but as he had
entrusted the whole matter to Mr. Barney it was necessary for the latter to give a pass also.

Government furnished us passage and subsistence from the time of leaving N Y to return there.

Atlantic is never used only as a Government Transport and is without the usual conveniences to be found on a
passenger steamer. The passage was rough and stormy and few escaped sea sickness. All who were able, of course,
wished to be on deck but had no awning or seats. We sat upon the floor and the gentlemen kindly lent us rubber
blankets to keep off the rain. There was general harmony of spirit, though sometimes a nice ear might have detected a
discordant strain in the sacred songs and hymns that were continually sung by our friends.

This psalm-singing reminded me of the old Scotch Covenanters [the Covenanters were those people in Scotland who
signed the National Covenant in 1638. They signed this Covenant to confirm their opposition to the interference by the
Stuart kings in the affairs of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland.] of other days, or the pilgrim bands I so often met in
the old world as they were "marching on" to the music of sacred songs I could hear long before the singers came in
sight, winding their onward way up to some holy shrine upon the mountain top.

We too were pilgrims, bound to a different form only of worship. "Work is worship" and I trust one spirit animates
our band one desire to lift up into the glorious light of freedom the oppressed and benighted ones, thrown by this wicked
rebellion, so entirely upon their own feeble resources and our humanity. We all feel a deep responsibility and I hope for
strength to meet it at any sacrifice.

March 9th, Sunday morning, have arrived at Beaufort. We left Hilton Head  yesterday at 3 P. M. in the
a small transport drawing less water than the
Atlantic and able to navigate Broad and Beaufort rivers. In half an hour we
were aground and I thought of the hours I have passed on sandbars in the Ohio. We undertook to draw a schooner up
with us and both stuck in the sand till 10 o'clock, when we escaped and gladly left the schooner to await the tide. Some
gentlemen went on shore in a small boat and gathered the peach and orange flowers, honeysuckle and branches of
the Palmetto, which they brought us as first offerings from secessia. [Confederate territory] Mr. Hooper brought some of
the "sacred soil" which he sent home in a letter.

Our arrival in Beaufort was greeted by no joyous welcome, no preparations awaited us. The houses, promised to
French, had been appropriated. The "elegant furniture" promised us could not be found. It seemed a general
appropriation act had passed since Mr. French left Beaufort and nothing was ready for us.

Rev. Mr. Peck  came on board for his daughter and kindly invited me and my charge, Miss [Ellen H. Winsor - Nellie]
Winsor [Nellie would marry Josiah Fairfield another superintendent - May 7, 1863],  to his house. Mrs.Johnson and sister
went with Mrs. Stevens to the General's quarters
General Stevens had command of Beaufort. Mr. & Mrs. French came
also to Mr. Peck's. The other ladies went to an unoccupied house near the Arsenal where all our luggage was taken. Not
an article of furniture was in the house. It was found that the
Cosmopolitan must return to Hilton Head immediately and
our luggage must be taken out. Who should do this?
Mr. Pierce and a set of noble young men several of them Harvard
graduates, men of taste and culture students with good common sense and earnestness of purpose that promises
success, went to work, coats off; they soon had every thing out of the boat, much to the astonishment of the idle lookers
on, white and black. The former not in sympathy with us.

We were in all, at
Dr. Peck's, ten. We had plates enough, but knives, forks and spoons would not go round, so we
divided one had knife, another fork. I had only a spoon, but this did very well for our simple repast consisting of tea, fish,
and bread and butter. Table cloth and napkins may come in the future.

"Cleanliness is next to godliness" so said the good Wesley [John Wesley - founder of Methodism]. I had not taken off my
dress or slept the previous night and instead of going to church I asked for a bath. Judy, a nice colored woman, did her
best to procure this for me, and in due time appeared with basin and ewer filled with water. Before I had commenced my
ablutions she came and asked the loan of it "just a minute" for a gentleman of course she took it, but soon returned and
found me pinning a spare towel to one window and my dressing gown to another for screens. With some difficulty I
procured a tumbler. Having no washstand or table, I used the deep window seat and luxuriated as one only can under
similar circumstances. The room I shared with Miss Peck and Miss Winsor. It contained one bedstead on which was a
very thin mattress of straw, which we three occupied (with a variety of creatures or insects), a bureau but no chairs.

A snow-storm greeted our arrival and the cherry trees near my window droped their frost-touched flower clusters. The
more hardy orange trees now in flower are shining white with bud and blossom and diffusing sweet odors all around.
Gardens, wholly neglected, are rich in flowers. Bouquets are continually brought to us by our friends. Today
Mr. [John
C.] Zachos  brought me one in which I counted twenty varieties. In the centre sat a gay-plumaged bird a beautiful
creature found dead among the bright flowers. What exquisite roses and rich yellow jassamines, climbing together over
wall and trellis! Hedges of Oleander and Japonica intersperced with sweet Honeysuckle! Peach trees in full bloom blush
among myrtle and magnolia. Our mantel is filled with flowers set in every variety of vase from the delicate parian to a
black bottle with neck broken off to give room for flowers. My last bouquet is in a tin cup.

Inexpressibly sad is the sight of Beaufort. I have visited many deserted palaces and found them much defaced windows
broken and doors off, locks removed and furniture destroyed or removed. Desolation, fit follower of war, reigns all
around. Why could not these people stay and enjoy their magnificent homes and put off the only foe they nursed in
these luxurious homes of theirs? The viper turned and stung the bosom that warmed and nourished it now where is this

Before the town was taken by our brave troops the inhabitants held a meeting in their largest church and every man had
to promise to fly rather than espouse the side of the Union. They shot some of the slaves who refused to go with them.

Tuesday 11th Went with Mr. French escorted by the Provost Marshal  in search of a house large enough to
accommodate 12 ladies. Twelve women together! This is fearful. We found a splendid house near the water and
therefore pronounced healthful. It must be thoroughly cleaned for the "chivalry" look not to corners and cupboards.
They leave this to the poor despised "mudsie" of the north. Such a kitchen as supplied their luxurious tables would no
where else be suffered. Bah! What filth years only could have so matured it.

Here we are at last in possession of [Col. Paul] Hamilton's superb mansion [Col Paul Hamilton was the son of Paul
Hamilton the Secretary of the Navy under President Madison]. Wednesday, 12 March. Slept last night at good
Dr. Peck's
but tonight must occupy the pleasant room assigned me in our new home. Unfurnished, of course, for every house has
been stripped of furniture. I have a frame of rough boards to support my narrow straw-stuffed mattress. My table is a
packing box, my candle-stick a potato, and a small wooden bench my only seat. I have a single piece of furniture a
marble-top mahogany wash-stand, which kind provost Belcher has brought, he says, "expressly for you." I expect to
have wash-basin and pitcher some time. Having neither pillow case nor sheet, I split open a white petticoat and slipped
myself between. Friends have sometimes called me fastidious, am I so?

Thursday 13th March. My window east opens upon a little porch with mosaic floor. From this what a glorious sunrise
over the river. Rosy Aurora tints sky and water. A magnificently spreading Live Oak fringed with long pendants of grey
moss stands between me and the river promising charming shade when summer heat demands out-door breezes. My
window north reveals orange trees and negro cabins and a pretty white henhouse made of lattice work and looking like
a fanciful summer house. Window south opens upon a broad verandah exposed on two sides to the sea or river rather,
but it is an arm of the sea and salt. A dressing room belongs to this room but is not spared for me. I have a fire-place
and fire is required night and morning.

Friday 14th. Not yet established. 12 women are too many for one house. Yesterday I was all day assorting old clothes
sent from New York for the negroes. Such old shoes and men's clothing filled with dust and dirt! Women's soiled gowns,
etc. and rags I would not give to a street beggar, have been sent at Government expense, to be handled and assorted
by ladies! Some new but more old. Could not the large charity of New York furnish new materials? Old is hardly worth
offering. Better to give the old at home to such as can mend comparatively few of the freed-women here can sew. We
hope to teach many to do it, but they need the clothing now. [An annotation here states "Further acquaintance corrects
the statement, nearly all can."]

Our rations consist of bread, beans, tea or coffee, rice, sugar, molasses and salt meat, to which we add some
condiments and luxuries brought by
Mr. French in small supplies that admonish economy in their use. We have knives
and forks, but teaspoons will not go round. If I am so fortunate as to have a spoon I give my coffee a stir and pass spoon
to next neighbor, who repeats so that one spoon serves three persons. Clouds begin to threaten a storm. It is quite
evident that perfect harmony will not reign. Mr. French has, by unanimous vote taken the head of our establishment. He
is a Methodist Episcopal minister, but ill health required him to abandon the pulpit some three years since, and he left
Xenia, Ohio, for New York, where he and his wife conduct a monthly entitled "The Beauty of Holiness." Mr. French is truly
religious. He has a kind gentle nature and is filled with earnest desire to do good. He is invariably kind, with heart and
spirit all right. His business capacity and executive talent are small compared with his large benevolence and
deep religious sentiment. I fear the want of business talent may lead to some difficulties in the organization he purposes
nousverrons. . . .

Saturday March 15th. I have been publicly rebuked for not kneeling during prayer. Why? I went to a "shout." This is
a religious rite of the blacks in this region. It consists of a peculiar dance to the singing of some hymn or song
extempore. At the commencement a circle dance men, women, and children, around two persons who sing. This dance
is an indescribable movement of the feet very heavy and a correspondent movement of the body. At the end of the tune
or song the central group is increased and another dance commenced each dance increasing the central group. The
Shout continues sometimes all night, increasing gradually in vigor and vehemence and the atmosphere ditto. I remained
far beyond my wish, waiting for the carriage. When it came none of our party were ready to leave and I returned alone.
The driver had no pass or counter-sign. I knew the counter-sign but had no right to use it, neither
had the driver. We were challenged three times but, reluctantly, allowed to pass and I reached home rather weary and
almost sick was going directly to my room but
Mr. French said he would first have service. I had just time to ask for some
sheets that he had promised to provide for me in New York and to learn that they had just, that evening, been sent to
Mrs. General Stevens. This was too much for human nature for I had had no sheets for 4 nights. I did not feel devotional
and did not kneel or make pretence but sat quietly as I often do when I feel most devotional. Prayer and singing over, I
said good night and was at the door when Mrs. F in loud tone began

"Miss Walker, you have hurt my feelings very much by not kneeling at prayer. I hope that in future you will always
do it, and set such an example to the colored people." I simply replied very sweetly "Good night, Mrs. French." Several
of our Boston young men stood at the door as I came out, having heard all. They greeted me most cordially as I passed
out. Next day I learned that they went home to their house near by and held an indignation meeting. . . .

Sunday March 16th. Went to the Baptist church. Mr. French preached to the 8th Michigan Reg[iment], General Stev-
ens and family present. A good talk could hardly be called a sermon but excellent of its kind. Subject: Daniel and his
trials, his powers of resistance and godly life application. General Stevens invited Mrs. J. [Mrs. Walter R. Johnson, sister
of Mary A Donaldson] and me to lunch and visit hospitals. Accepted of course.
Dr. Kemble, 34 Penn. Brigade Surgeon,
went with us visited Round Head and other hospitals. Women are sadly needed in these hospitals. About 100 sick and
tended by men look forlorn need a woman's face and voice to cheer and woman's hand to smooth their pillow. . . .

No musquito nets.
Dr. Kemble says he made requisition upon Dr. ... at Hilton Head for nets but was refused
because Dr. wished a General Hospital there; has 1200 nets and would send none. Dr. K[emble] wishes he had some
female nurses, says he would take them in special charge and give them a house, etc. Dined at 6 o'clock at
Stevens, talked about Washington Military, Anderson, etc. Johnson best officer in the rebel army [Joseph Eggleston
Johnston] . McC. [ George B. McClellan] afraid of him. Returned home and retired. Awakened from deep sleep by
Harlan who came to say Atlantic would sail from Hilton Head tonight. Had I anything for [Secretary] Chase whom she
should see. Had nothing, had written to his daughters all I had to say. . . .

Monday 17th March.
Mr. French has asked me to be his secretary but I think he wishes a grand Report and will publish
it. I do not wished to be mixed up with
N[ew] Y[ork] association for there is no congeniality of taste and sentiment. I
hope we all came with one purpose.

I have been appointed superintendent of washing. This I have accepted and intend to do my best to give satisfaction, if
I remain here. I have just received a note from
Mr. Pierce asking if Mrs. J., M., N., and I will go to the Pope plantation  
and aid him and
Mr. Hooper in plantation work. Our hearts leap with the idea, but we will consult Mr. F[rench]. He is so
kindly disposed we do not wish to hurt his feelings, if he should object to our leaving.
Dr. Peck urged my remaining with
him and his daughter but Mr. French objected so strongly, I thought it best to try what could be done with his tribe of
women, much doubting my ability to remain long.
Dr. Peck has sent several times to ask my return. He also wants Miss
Winsor as teacher in his colored school.

Tuesday 18 March. Last night it was decided that we should go to the plantation. We rejoice in this decision because we
believe we can be far more useful there.
Dr. Peck came this morning and again repeated his kind invitation to me and
my charge,
Nellie [Winsor]. He wants us both, he says, Nellie for school and me to go with him to visit the plantations on
Port Royal Island, all of which are under his superintendence. They are 65 in number. Beauford is upon P[ort] R[oyal]

Mr. Pierce, in his admirable Report [first Port Royal Report - February 1862],  has truly and beautifully described this
apostle, whose saintly look is a benediction.His sweet daughter, Lizzie came to Beaufort with us, to join her father and to
minister to his comfort. She has a delicate
look, I do not think she can be strong.

Mr. P[ierce] urges us to the plantation and so we go four of us together. A "lighter" takes our luggage and a 6 oar boat,
rowed by as many stalwart negroes, takes us and
Mr. Hooper, who is our escort. Our rowers sing as they row, their own
songs some impromptu and all religious about the Saviour and the kingdom. Their oars dip in the sparkling water,
keeping time to the song. It is a clear bright day. The sun, warm, but a fine breeze, makes our row of half an hour in
crossing Beaufort river, most delightful. The boat cannot touch the shore because of shallow water and so a stout negro
takes us one at a time in his arms and carries us from boat to shore.

Mr. Eustis  has invited us to dine with him and sent his carriage to the ferry for us. The carriage, dilapidated now, was
Miss Mary Jenkins' but confiscated and appropriated by Mr. Eustis. This is our way of securing comforts. A nice dinner,
roast beef awaited us and a pleasant re-union with friends we had not seen since we parted on arrival at Hilton Head.
After dinner the gentlemen preceded us to the Pope plantation to see if all was in readiness for us. They returned and
escorted us to our future home, where tea awaited us under
Mr. Hooper's superintendence, also a crowd of blacks men,
women and children, came to welcome us ragged and dirty they offered hands we could not refuse. The men scraped
and bowed, the women curtesied. Little children scraped without bowing most laughably. I brought in a little fellow of 15
years and we were greatly amused at his scraping his foot with the slightest movement of head. We took our nice tea
and corn bread without butter and retired early. I could not sleep because my new straw mattress was very hard and my
bedstead, buggy.

Wednesday 19 March. Arose, not refreshed, for want of sleep ; discarded bedstead and Mr. Ruggles made a rough
board frame to support my mattress. Nellie and I occupy same room and have a small wash-room, which is a great
luxury. I brought my marble top wash stand and my nice basin and pitcher and new water bucket enough to make my
comfort without anything else. After arranging my room I went with Mrs. J[ohnson] and Mr. Eustis to his overseer-house,
now our store house, to open boxes of clothing and select for plantations. Worked all day and returned for 6 P. M.

Thursday. At home all day putting house in order. Have but little furniture but expect to pick up gradually. Everything
has been taken out of the houses. What the military left, the blacks have hidden away and will no doubt bring us enough
to make us comfortable.

Friday. Again at store-house opening boxes and selecting clothes for plantations; all day working hard. Have rilled 4
large boxes with a variety of clothes for men, women and children ; wish we had more clothes for children.

Saturday. Visited cabins and preached industry and cleanliness. Mrs. J[ohnson] has done much to induce the last,
already at her instance whitewashing and scrubbing have commenced and imitation is large in the negro. I am hopeful.

Sunday. Drove 4 miles to church. Avenue leading up to the church having natural hedge of Cherokee rose, climbing
sometimes 30 or 40 feet on privet and pine tree. Church stands in a grove of live oak deeply fringed with grey moss. A
burial place overhung by a wide spreading live oak, whose luxuriant branches with their pendants of moss, seemed like
wings of guardian angels spread out to embrace the loved ones buried there, whose white marble monuments tell us
they "lived to be loved and died to be lamented." One newly made grave marked by a notched board tells us its
occupant is now equal with his white master before the throne of the "King of kings," though no marble monument marks
his last resting place. The slave is free.
Pax vobiscum. [Peace with you.]

I taught a class in our morning Sunday school and never have I seen greater earnestness to "learn to read." This is the
universal cry. They oftener ask for books than for clothes. After school the church was filled with some 3 to 400 clean
dressed, but odd looking people. Many wore table covers for shawls, some, showy gowns left by Sesesh ladies, and
trousers, coats and vests made of carpeting taken from the floors. "Necessity is the mother of invention" as these
neglected people daily prove to us. Mr. Hooper opened service by reading selections from Scripture. A colored brother
then offered an earnest prayer. Mr. Hooper read a hymn and then lined it out and the congregation sung it. Mr. H. said
he could not preach but would tell a story. He did it well and all listened with deep interest to hear how the giant Offro  
found Christ. The giant was a strong man but wished to find a stronger than himself and set out in search of the
strongest and most powerful man in the world. The King would not do and Satan would not do ; at last a holy hermit
directed him to find Christ. Offro would not pray and could not fast but could work. For a year he served pious
pilgrims by carrying them in his arms over a rapid river in their journey to the Holy Sepulchre. One stormy night a little
child asked to be carried over. It was hard for Offro to leave his warm bed but he did it. The little child began to grow
heavy and when they reached the shore a glory shone around him and lighted the darkness. A man was set down who
said "you have at last by your fidelity and faith found Christ." Mr. Pierce made some excellent remarks touching every
day duties. Another hymn was read by Mr. Hooper and sung by the congregation, after which in beautiful and solemn
tone and manner Mr. Hooper pronounced the benediction.

After service Mr. Pierce, Nellie and I drove to Jenkins' plantation, about 8 miles from Pope's. The house stands near the
river, is 5 miles by boat from Hilton Head. An extensive and beautiful flower garden lies between house and river. I
gathered a rich and varied bouquet from the large beds of verbena and sweet violet. Retinospora from the large trees in
the garden, Oleander buds from trees larger than the largest Quince tree, Coral honeysuckle and geranium and many
other varieties.

Monday 24th March. At overseer or store house selecting clothing nearly all day.

Tuesday. Again at the Jenkins' plantation to look into cabins, talk with women and see what can be done to improve
them. Katy has 7 ragged, dirty children, what shall be done? No husband and nothing. Some clothes are given for her
children one naked, and must have it at once. Is Katy lazy ? Very likely. Does she tell the truth? Perhaps not. I must
have faith and she must, at least, cover her children. She promises to make her cabin and herself clean and to wash her
children before putting on the new clothes. Will she do it? I will see her again. Visited some twenty or more cabins and
talked a great deal. Chaplin's plantation is adjoining. He was old and unmarried.

They say he was a kind master. He told them to stay when the Yankees came. Many masters told their slaves the
Yankees would take them and send them to Cuba and sell them away from their children, and that they must run when
the Yankees came. One woman said they told her the Yankees had horns and she must run and hide in the woods
before they came. She added, "I knowed massa meant to come and get me away an' I didn't go." I said, "I am a Yankee,
why don't you run? don't you see my horns?" She seized my hands and kissed them saying "bless the Lord we glad you

I fear the cotton agent, Salisbury, 42 stationed here is not a good man. The negroes complain of him and they all look
so neglected it is quite evident he has done no good upon the plantation. He drives the finest horses I have seen in Port
Royal or St. Helena ; gives good dinners ; entertains largely ; has appropriated all the furniture and nearly all the teams
about the place and refuses to give anything to the Superintendents placed there by Mr. Pierce. Smith and Taylor are
superintendents. Yesterday, Salisbury demanded 3 oxcarts and their oven and one mule and cart with ten men who had
been set at work by Smith. What can be done with only hands and hoes upon such extent of cotton and corn fields?

Wednesday 26th March. At home all day writing. What joy! Letters from Secretary Chase, James Fisher,  Hellen
Walker, Mrs. Eastman. Am I not happy. Mr. Channing too joint letter to Mrs. Johnson], Mary and me. Three newspapers
too! Spent all evening in letter writing. Learn that a steamer leaves tomorrow.

Thursday 27th March. Visited cabins and found four or five sick. Yesterday Katy gave birth to a child, the first free born
child here and we mean to call the boy Edward L. Pierce.

Friday. Provost Marshal, Lieut. Belcher, came to lunch with us and look after the comfort of the ladies. Just as the
Provost was leaving we were surprised by the appearance of a cavalcade at our door. General] [Thomas W.] Sherman
with his aids from Hilton Head and Genferal] Stevens and his aids from Beauford came to pay their respects to us. All
offered to do anything in their power for us. Mr. Pierce had brought sardines and cheese, which, with our ration bread
we set before our visitors. Mr. Pierce also offered wine but the presence of ladies perhaps prevented its acceptance.
The incident was an agreeable one. These have been our only visitors except Mr. Eustis since we came to the

Saturday. This is Mr. Pierce's birthday, he says. We ought to have a festival and christen ebony Edward, his name-
sake, but no clergyman is here. We must wait till Dr. Peck comes over. Spent the day at the storehouse assorting
clothing; made up two large boxes for Phillips  and Philbrick. Opened Concord box and found a valuable collection of
clothing for children which we greatly need. Found Mr. Hooper and Mr. Philbrick on arriving home. The latter passed the
night. He came in great trouble about the cotton agents Nobles and Salisbury, who so retard his operations and who are
doing so much to injure the laborers at Coffin's Point, where he and Gannett are stationed. His Report shows the agents
there to be very bad men. What can be done?

Sunday 30 March. Note from Mr. P[ierce] asking if I will write to Secretary Chase about them. I listen, after going to
parlor, to his letter to Secretary]. Col[onel] Reynolds  and Philbrick's written reports are to be forwarded to Washington.
Determine to add my mite however small and beseech the Secretary to heed Mr. Pierce's earnest appeal. Will not his
name as mover [ ?] and supporter of this experiment to "improve the negroes" carry his name wherever tongue can
pronounce it? Will not the recording angel write [it] in with pen of light in the Great Book? He will come now to our aid
and remove these bad men who are doing so much to corrupt the negroes he wishes to improve. His past life-work is
guarantee of present help. I feel that he will now do what he- can. Shall not go to church today. Thermometer is at 72
and sun bright I will stay indoors. Last night I came home so tired with assorting clothing, I went to my room directly from
our 7 o'clock dinner and did not leave it again till this morning. A good sleep and bath refreshed me and I feel quite

Monday 3 1st March. Atlantic has arrived. Will there be letters for me. We have a dinner party today. General Stevens,
wife, son and daughter, Mr. Eustis and son, and Mr. Hooper, all invited by Mr. Pierce. What field for invention! We have
an extension table but, alas, our table cloth will not extend and it is our only one. I have a bright thought. I have just
finished a new sheet; this shall be washed and starched, nicely ironed will it not seem invisible damask ? And with
napkins made from a scrap of an old table cloth found at our washerwoman's, and nicely done up, our table shines. I
brought two silver forks and Mrs. Hooper has one; others have plated forks three, so we can make up a half dozen silver
and plated, which we give our guests. Mr. Hooper we don't mind because he belongs to our family. He is general
express-man though and for convenience is mostly with Mr. Eustis on Ladies Island nearer the ferry. Mr. Eustis
brings his plates, spoons, etc. and his excellent waiter, Harry. A moutton has been slain, this furnishes our meat to which
however we may add ration ham. Mfary] accomplishes an apple dumplin and I succeed under some difficulties in getting
it boiled.

Mr. Eustis surprises us by bringing ripe strawberries, a few dried fruits procured by private enterprise in Beauford or
sent by Boston friends, furnish a nice dessert, which we ornament with flowers. Green orange leaves with bud and flower
contrast prettily with the ripe golden fruit; green fig leaves beautify our dish of dried figs and a wreath of Cherokee roses
and a vase of natural flowers form a pretty centre piece for our table. Robert, an old herdsman, makes delicious butter
always and today gives his best how sweet and fresh. Coffee with cream follows last. Spoons are scarce I have four
silver teaspoons, Mrs. Hooper one, and we raise two plated ones, enough for guests and we decline coffee at some
personal sacrifice for we all like the beverage. I must not omit the rich salad which, of course, American fashion followed
the meats. We thank Mr. Ruggles  for the nice lettuce he brought us and wish our table cloth would have given him a
"cover." Fortunately it just reached for 12 and 13 fatal number, was saved ! Our dinner was pronounced a grand
success. General Stevens was too busy with trying the pontoon bridge at Beauford to come and sent his two aids,
Captain Stevens  (his son) and Lieutenant Lyons 51 to escort the ladies. We were sorry not to see him and also
General Sherman who was invited, but we had a merry dinner though rebel pickets are within 10 miles of us.

April 1st Tuesday. My week at housekeeping, how I dread it ! Susannah is no cook, has never been taught and her
kitchen is away across the yard. I cannot go to her through the burning sun and over the deep sand. If I could I fear I
shouldn't, for it is too small and has too many in it no room for me and to tell truth I don't like kitchens, especially colored
ones where the dinner I am to eat has to be cooked. Our two waiters, Jane and Lucy are girls of 14 whom we have taken
to instruct generally. Ellic, field hand, assists sometimes, but oftener hinders. I must call Jane to tell Lucy to find Ellic and
send him to cut some wood and bring it in quickly to make a fire ; we are all very cold at evening even though
thermometer may have stood at 80 at midday. It is a peculiarity of this region, a part of its former institutions, nothing
can ever be provided before it is absolutely needed in order that patience may have its perfect work perhaps.
In the present case we have no lock or latch or fastening of any kind to any door, and no place but the chimney corner
for our wood and therefore cannot keep a very large supply on hand. We have few cooking utensils and no
conveniences of any description. The "barbarism of Slavery everywhere," trumpet tongued, proclaims against every
form of progress, and hugs the chains that limit it. It is only necessary to survey a plantation that has for generations
been cultivated for the single purpose of producing the largst quantity of cotton, cultivated with one idea, to read the
small history of its master. Pope's is perhaps the average plantation, 87 negroes and good cotton grounds yielding 139
acres per annum. The house not old nor yet very new, contains no approach or reference to convenience. The grounds
are equally innocent of any indication of taste. The whole plantation nowhere suggests an idea of beauty derived from
any sort of culture. Nature, as if to rebuke man, has planted a white Cherokee rose hedge in front of the barn and corn
yard but permits it not to aproach near the house. If the barn had not been located so as to hide the graceful curve in
the creek, quite a picturesque view might have opened from eastward. There is a vegetable garden on one side through
which, in straight lines Orange trees have been planted, interspersed with mustard and cabbage stalks, but not a single
garden flower blooms upon the plantation. Flora has nowhere on these Islands lavished her gifts Nature has left this
land to its idol Art has transplanted from other regions a choice variety of garden flowers to some of the flower gardens
but I have seen few wild flowers growing on any of these Islands.

Wednesday 2d April. Atlantic returns today and my letters must go to J. T. F., 52 Cousin Cynthia and Mr. Winn. A
quantity of clothing has been brought over from the store house and all the time I can spare from housekeeping must be
given to the buyers who come for clothing. I shall have little time for letter writing to day.

Thursday. Mr. Zachos came up in his boat from Hilton Head, very glad to see him ; went with him by boat to the store
house and filled two bags with clothing for his five plantations, not much, to be sure, but all we can spare. He will send
his boat any day we will visit him at Paris Island should like to go for this place is so uninviting. I am tired of it.

Friday. Visited cabins and talked with women, found several sick and complaining of aches and pains; do not wonder
they feel sick in such atmosphere. Why will not they keep cleaner? Have better ventilation ! I always prescribe open door
and bath no medicine is needed if they would but live decently. Housekeeping is a bore and storekeeping ditto. Very
tired I retire early.

Saturday 5th April. Mr. Pierce has invited some gentlemen to dine and we must send table-cloth and napkins to be done
up before dinner. He has seven nice fish sheep's-head fish this must furnish our repast. I will send for Becky to scrub
the dining room floor and set Lucy and Jane to assort thread and needles for our negroes. I am all alone. Mrs. Johnson
and sister have gone to Wasso and Nellie is sick. Saturday is a day of leisure and men and women come by twenties
and thirties to buy clothing. Some bring money and some want credit. I note each sale. Men buy gowns and chemises for
their wives when they can buy nothing for themselves. They want very long dresses and ask often for white skirts. We
had some half dozen which went off at once and many disappointments followed because we had no more. I wish our
friends would send a quantity of the corded muslin that Chandler sells very cheap for skirts. The women here will gladly
make them for themselves. I have taken today $20 in money and credited a good deal to those who had no money yet
wanted a smart gown and new chemise for Sunday. I wish we had as many more boxes as we have already received.
We need a great deal yet to supply all who need. They come from long distances and it is hard to turn them away for
want of such articles as they greatly need.

Sunday 6th April. Yesterday was a hard day for me the hardest I have seen since I came to Port Royal, and I retired
thoroughly disgusted and discouraged. If I had only to consider my own wants I should not be troubled for I would
confine myself to Government rations and be thankful and cheerful, but three other ladies and one or two gentlemen are
to be made comfortable through my efforts to provide. Mr. P[ierce] is extremely kind and brings many luxuries to be
prepared and he likes a good table. Who does not? I like it too, but do not like to do it myself. If we only had a good
waiter he might relieve the housekeeper of much disagreeable drudgery and save her more valuable time for more
important service for teaching and preachmg, both of which are required every day. These poor, neglected ones need
often to be reminded of the oft repeated necessities of cleanliness and industry. They come to me in rags and dirt to ask
for a Sunday gown. They astonish me by the good taste with which they select. The orange and blue white striped skirts
and sacks are the least salable of all dresses. The yellow and brown kerchief-turbans the least desired though all the
head-kerchiefs are gifts to them, as requested by Mrs. Cabot.  Exceptions, of course, to all rules, as for instance at
church today I noted black Moll with her cheery face and ivory teeth. Moll wore a gown of red and green patch deep red
roses blushed and glowed full size, upon a field of green; flounce a half yard deep tucked in the middle; over her
shoulders she wore a blue gauze veil and around her neck a white kerchief fastened with white gauze ribbon and brooch
of red glass. Her apron was a black crape veil with deep hem, probably a widow's deep mourning weed. A high turban of
brilliant colors set upon her head like the Normandy cap. Black net mits covered her blacker hands, and an embossed
table cover, black and scarlet, served for shawl. The conscious beauty, for she felt that she was handsome, smiled as I
caught her eye and asked her name.

Judy is in my Sunday-school class; does not remember the letter U. Why not? She replies "Misses, we don't study dat."
What do you study? "We study de lord." Whereupon I preached to her from her own text. How "study de lord" better
than by improving the opportunity he has given by sending teachers to teach the way to read his holy Bible? Mr. Thorpe
talked well to the people, told them their duties, urged industry and patience, pointed out the greater sufferings of our
soldiers and their families. A colored leader offered an earnest prayer. He prayed that "we may feel d influrence dy holy
spirit, God bless de Union people whereber dey may be trabbling on de land, on de water, en deir distant families
whersoeber dey may be."

Monday 7. Last day of my housekeeping. How I rejoice! I am ready to do harder work of different kind, but cannot do

Tuesday 8 April. Mr. Pierce went to Hilton Head and returned with a large package of letters and papers for me. I feel
quite bright and strong now. Last few days have been decidedly homesick.

Wednesday Qth April. Drove to Fuller's 55 plantation; saw Superintendent Ruggles; went to the negro quarters and
talked with the women. They need help. It is so near we ought to go often.

Thursday. Drove with Mr. Pierce and Mary to the far end of Ladies Island Brickyard Point where Federal troops are sta-
tioned. This is opposite the. Rebel pickets on the Main [land] and shots are often exchanged. Captain Dimmock
commands here. Had a charming drive through the woods and cotton fields. Gathered wild flowers, Azalia pink and
white, with all the New England fragrance. I greeted it as an old friend. Ferns are very coarse saw no fine ones or would
have gathered some. Stopped at Chaplin's plantation where the only white man left on St. Helena still lives very
secluded, not liking to see any one but his own servants who still attend him. His family are all sesesh. He says nothing
and is called crazy did not see him. Found the women ragged and dirty no whitewash here; promised to use it before I
came again poor souls. They have little encouragement to do anything. All work and no pay yet and so "confused" as
they express it, about themselves. Do not know whose they are, whether they belong to themselves or somebody

Friday 11th April. Heavy firing all morning yesterday and commenced again at 10 last evening, still continued till about
2 P. M., probably cannonading Fort Pulaski 67 30 miles distant so heavy as to shake our house. If sesesh gain we will
hang from the highest tree. I look at these tall pines in the grove near my window and wonder which branch will hold me.
I fear not for I feel that I am sent here for good. I came not myself alone.

Saturday. Yesterday at 2 P. M. Pulaski raised the white flag just in time to save the powder magazine and many lives.
Only one of our men lost. Thank God! for another bloodless victory ! Sunday I3th April. Sumpter anniversary. Went to
church and taught Sunday-school. "Atmospheric pressure" too severe, had great difficulty in bearing it to the end of
service. Thorpe made an eloquent appeal to the people. May it touch their hearts and consciences and encourage them
to "labor and to wait." His people are troublesome ; many are discontented and our young superintendents are tried in
many ways still they persevere. We came out as strangers, entirely ignorant of the country and the people. Our laborers
had always been driven with uplifted whip. We came to them after three months of desolation and war had demoralized
them. The masters abandoned them, leaving the cotton half picked and grain, potatoes, ungathered. Each
superintendent has charge of from one to 10 plantations ; all the winter and spring work had been neglected ; no
preparation for planting cotton; no fencing; no mules good for anything; plows were broken and hoes lost ; harnesses
were worn out and carts nowhere to be found. Government had not yet paid for picking last year's crop and laborers
had no faith in its promises and worked accordingly lazily and complainingly. Soldiers and others equally unwise had told
them they were "freemen and need not work." The new condition in which they found themselves had produced among
them such "confusion," as they rightly described themselves, that they hardly knew what to do or to believe, and yet with
all this to contend with we have succeeded in planting more corn and potatoes enough to feed the 10,000 blacks and
a fair crop of cotton besides. Confusion has become order and confidence reigns generally. With a few exceptions, the
laborers have gone about their work as in the master's time. All understand the planting better than we can teach them,
but they need encouragement. They have not yet become self-reliant. Many are well-disposed and work willingly when
made to understand that the corn, which they so willingly plant, is to furnish them food, but the cotton must all be planted
for Government and for this planting, wages will be paid them and with their wages they must buy clothes. Sweeting and
tobacco or have none. It has been hard to teach this but the lesson oft repeated, is beginning to take effect. The soil
had not much depth but continual replanting of the good seed, will, I feel confident, ultimately repay and richly too, the
patient laborer.

Some are lazy and others are grasping. Are whites less so? I think the latter trait justifies faith in their ability to take care
of themselves, now that they are relieved from the necessity of supporting their master's family. Let us give them a fair
opportunity to try here in their native home and we need have no fear that they will not more than support themselves.
Of course Government will not expect to make anything out of them this year.

Monday April 14. Went -to Miss Winsor's school and prepared sewing for her girls, with her approval. It seems to me
desirable to combine industry with other teachings. On returning home saw Mr. Ketchum, who is head of N[ew] Y[ork]
Ass[ociation]. He called for a few moments and went through the Quarters to note operations.

Tuesday. Miss D[onaldson] and I tried to walk to the woods but this proved a failure. The woods receded as we
advanced through sandy cotton fields, wading over shoes in dry sand. The field was blue with the little so profuse there.
Wednesday :6th April. General Stevens and staff, Mr. Eustis, and Mr. and Mrs. John Forbes called. We had a plain
lunch, crackers and sardines.

Thursday. Drove to St. Helenaville. This is the summer residence of the planters, a rude village in a pine wood by the
Bay. Houses unfinished generally and unpainted, merely white-washed. Some flower gardens but not much cultivation
simply a resort during July and August. The planters took only a few house servants with them and a little furniture. It is
considered more healthful than Beauford, but must be an uninteresting residence unless social life had great charm.
There could have been nothing else. I collected some secesh receipts for cooking etc. but nothing important remained.
Friday. Assorted clothing all morning and fitted out school children. These children are peculiarly formed, probably
owing to hard work and neglect on part of mothers. Little encouragement to give out new clothes for they will not take
care of them. They either play June bug in the sand, with a peculiar hop, raising such a dust you can not see, or else
crawl on hands and knees through the sand and very soon soil their new clothes, or the clothes are put out of sight that
they may be able to beg for more. They like to hoard. Does this desire of acquisition indicate providence or selfishness?
If the former we should hail it and encourage such good omen as will lead to self care and provision for the future.

Generals Hunter and Benham called. We were all invited to dine with General Stevens, pass the night and go to a
concert in Beauford, given by the Round Head band. General Stevens sent his carriage for us; I declined because we
ought not all to leave home. 1 9th April Saturday. Celebrated by a marriage. Archie Pope with Madeline Wallace. E. L.
Pierce conducted ceremonies in very solemn and impressive manner. My first attendance at negro wedding. Grand
entertainment and fine dressing, probably finery left by sesh ladies in their flight, and appropriated by servants. Tulle
tunic finished with ruche over white silk, headdresses of flowers and ribbons and bouquet de corsage in profusion.

Sunday. Reached home after midnight and found Mr. and Mrs. Philbrick had made bedroom of the parlor, Miss Ware
and Miss Towne 60 occupied [it] with Mrs. Johnson and her sister and all were asleep. Miss Towne will remain with us.
My housekeeping has again come round. I pity the sufferers. How it tries me to do anything with such ignorant and
untrained servants. I hope I shall be more patient than before even if does find fault or expect more than can be
furnished. I decline being cook or waiter.

21 Monday. Housekeeping!

22 Tuesday. Mrs. Johnson and Miss Donaldson left for home. Atlantic takes them back to N[ew] Y[ork] with rich
experiences of plantation life after slavery left it.

23 Wednesday. Boxes, clothing, all removed to Pope's cotton house. Now it will be much easier to assort, more room
and no long ride in the sun. Time will be saved and convenience gained.

Thursday. Hard work all day assorting clothing and keeping house. Horribly bitten by fleas and gnats and stinging sand
flies; Beauty entirely destroyed! Never suffered so much from bites of insects. Undertake to look after the plantation.

Friday. Drove to Oliver and other Fripp plantations and found people discouraged and discontented because they have
no confidence in the promises of Government to pay them for their labor. Cotton agent, Colonel] Reynolds, has through
Mr. Suydam  paid some laborers but not many. None here have been paid and they will not believe we mean to pay
them. Mr. Suydam came to Pope's house one day and told me he had brought some money, but not enough to pay in
full, so he had given "tickets for goods in the store" for the remainder. I asked if he knew what exorbitant prices were
demanded for those goods, stating that for molasses they charged $1.00 per gallon when we could buy of commissary
in Beauford for 42cts. Salt too they sold 10 cts quart and very brown Havana sugar they sold for 25 cts Ib. Skirting of
ordinary quality 24 wide they sell for 25cts yd. Mr. S[uydam] said he could only say that they had no interest were merely
selling for Government at their own prices. Government had to pay high in Beauford for all articles. I replied, I cannot
understand why Government] cannot buy at such prices as to afford goods as low as sold by commissaries. Mr.
S[uydam] much excited, "I do not know, Miss Walker, you must ask them." "Neither do I know," I returned, "but I think
the proper gen[eral] officers ought to understand about it." Exit Mr. S. somewhat ruffled. The next steamer carried these
facts through me to the Treasury Department. We will see if such injustice is to continue. No wonder the negroes lose
confidence. Park and Thorpe have superintendence of Oliver Fripp and several other plantations. The former is son of
Prof[essor] Park of Andover Seminary not anti slavery and is, perhaps, a little uncomfortable with the laborers. The latter
was antislavery, has perhaps the stronger character and Park has prevailed to such a degree that the result of their
superintendence has become disaffection almost amounting to mutiny among the people. They refuse to work and
grumble continually. Mr. Pierce, Miss Tfowne] and I went to see if we could re-assure them and harmonize the discordant
elements. We met sour looks and cross words but will try again.

26 Saturday, April. Joy and Thanksgiving! Room all to myself. Such a relief to belong to myself once more! Miss
Winsor] has gone to room with Miss Towne]. Coming as a pioneer, bearing the brunt of the battle, I felt that I so required
the strength of this new arrangement that I had a right to ask it now that our number is so reduced that we have two
rooms for three ladies. Oh, what infinite relief to come to my own room and feel that no mortal has a right to intrude upon
my inmost sanctuary. Here I will try to gather up strength for each day's duties.

I am so tired I cannot think and yet I must write out my fatigue before I rest my weary limbs. I have been at the clothing
all day and am so tired, so very tired, will not it rest me to write so tired! The clothing has gradually become my
department. I am willing to take housekeeping half but not all the time. Miss T[owne] does not like changing and though
she hates housekeeping as much as I do, still prefers it all the time if any. I do not consider this fair, but since she will
have it so, consent for the present.

27th Sunday. Too tired to go to church but went to "Praise House" and read New Testament and talked with those who
could not go to church. Lingered with old Phillis and Catherine and they related new horrors of Slavery. Told me about
ankle fetters, collar and mouth piece and terrible cowhidings and finally the hangings and shootings by slavemasters to
prevent escape of servants forced to follow sesesh in flight to "the Main." When I said such cruelty could not be, old
Phillis, raising her hand to her head in a manner peculiar to herself, exclaimed, "Heigh, you no bleve me, heigh, worse
en dat." Here we were interrupted by a messenger to say a gentleman had called to see me. Thus my talk ended for this

Monday. Again all day at the clothing while Miss T[owne] attended at home. I have decided to take Jane from school and
let her help me pack boxes and I will teach her. It is now too warm for her to walk y mile here before breakfast and go
back to school and then return here, as she has been doing, till evening and go home to sleep. She loses so much time
and no one is the gainer. Today with her assistance I assorted and repacked 11 boxes. The clothing department has
finally devolved upon me. It is a great responsibility and I will write to the committee and state how matters stand. I do not
belong to Boston or any commission and perhaps the Boston commission would prefer to send a "special agent" or
select some one already sent here by them, for this duty. I have tried to do the best I could. At first Mr. Eustis, Mrs.
Johnson, Miss Donaldson and myself assorted clothing at Eustis' overseer house and left it there for Mr. Eustis to send,
as packed, to the different superintendents. Mr. Pierce on April 22 had the boxes brought to Pope's cotton house and
now I have sole care of it, and it occurs to me that the committee ought to give this charge to one of their agents.

20th April Tuesday. Drove to Gabriel Caper's. He was a bachelor and everything about the place has an exceedingly
neglected look. House old and forlorn; cabins wretched and people hopeless. They gathered and gave me some fine
white mulberries, here the mulberry is tasteless I do not like it. Women gathered around me and I tried to explain to them
as simply as I could what government is; the power that I and they must obey. One bright, intelligent woman, expressed
herself very much comforted by what I said. She said they had all been so "confuse;" they did not know what to do; did
not know where they belonged or "anything about we." Old Gabriel, her master's father, was the person selected by the
chief men of the Island (St. Helena) to receive Napoleon Bonaparte when they heard of his banishment to St. Helena.
Proof undoubted of great intelligence and wisdom on the part of the inhabitants generally. Could there be a St. Helena
out of cottendom! "Bleeve ye" the negro would say.

30 April Thursday. Day of grateful rest so needed by tired and worn out system.

May 1 Thursday. Went to Fripp's point with Mr. P[ierce] and Miss Winsor, dined with Mrs. Philbrick and Miss Thorne.
Not very interesting place. They will remove to Coffin's p[oin]t when cotton agent Salisbury vacates. Stopped at Capt.
I[saac] Fripp's on return and found people ragged and discontented. It was a trial to see these people.

Friday. Made out Pay-roll for laborers on Pope's plantation, "The Oaks." laborers to be paid proportionally for planting
52*4 acres cotton at I dollar per acre. They promise that if they can have another mule they will plant 20 acres more.
They must be kept at work for their own good.

Saturday. Mrs. French, Curtis, Nicholson, Lieut [enanjts Belcher and Gregory came to lunch. Mrs. French] made me
apology for speaking as she did on several occasions while we were together in Buford.

Sunday. Went to Praise house and read to some of the old people who could not go to church. Read sermon on the
Mount to old lame Bess and Robert the cow herd. Interrupted by call home to receive C. S. [Coast Survey] Officers
Boutelle and Boyd. The former, an old acquaintance of mine and friend of Sears [a brother of Miss Walker]. His duties
have been for years in this region and he is personally acquainted with all the planters on this and Ladies Island; has
often been a guest at their tables. Says that they were generally a hard, uncultivated set. Men minded cotton and
women chiefly interested in poultry. "How's your poultry" the first salutation to each other. Some exceptions of taste and
refinement among gentlemen and ladies ; they had few amusements and few interests apart from cotton ; gave few
dinners and had but little social life out of their own families. For three weeks there has been no mail! We hear
that New Orleans is taken. Is it true? Hope so.

5th May Monday. All day in cotton house assorting clothing and selling to those who come from a distance. Do not wish
to sell here or give on account, except to the people on this plantation. Think it better for each superintendent to supply
his own people, but they will come here from the farthest points. Mr. Eustis has become provost marshal for St. Helena
and Ladies Island and has issued an order of arrest if any negro is found away from home during working hours. This
will be some relief and secure more work in field, but the people have heard that there are white ladies here and boxes
of clothing and they would rather walk miles and buy it of us than receive it at home on account. This creates much
discussion and we decide against indulging them but it is so hard to refuse what gives them so much comfort, and when
they come, after finishing their day's work, however tired I may be, they get something, if I have open boxes. I try to
assort and repack so fast as to keep but little on hand for such indulgences.

6th May Tuesday. Gen[eral] Hunter has issued an order and sent Jim Cashman to receive colored volunteers for the
army. I have tried in vain to inspire desire to fight but none wish to volunteer. This is a sad truth and full of deep
meaning. All spirit has been so crushed down there is nothing left to rise up in defence of their just rights or to secure
freedom. They might and I think would run fast and far to escape their masters and the old condition of slavery. They
prove this by daily escapes from the Main, where they were forced to follow their runaway masters. Instances of daring
and courage, of bold adventure even, show that, when aroused, they are equal to defending themselves and securing
escape from the Masters under all manner of adverse circumstances. Huge obstacles are surmounted and most
wonderful tales of adventure show latent energy and power, but generally the negroes left upon the plantations are
those rejected by the masters as least desirable for them to secure. These are living machines, many of them so happy
that they are left in their quiet homes to work for wages, without lash or driver, they ask nothing beyond the present.
They could, I am sure, be forced to fight, but they will not volunteer to leave their homes. For weeks after the flight of
secesh, with such of the negroes as could be taken, they would return by night to the plantation to steal others took
them from their beds took children, till at last, the negroes, for many weeks, did not venture to sleep in their houses, but
hid in the woods or along the creek under the shelving banks or in branches of trees. The children were hidden among
the cotton beds every night, in the fields, for weeks after Government took Port Royal and adjacent Islands under
military escort, he was severely criticised. The blacks were just getting settled in their work, and relieved from the fear of
Cuban slavery, when they were called from the fields, collected, impressed, and marched off "never . . . did a
major-general fall into a sadder blunder and rarely had humanity been outraged by an act of more unfeeling barbarity"

7th May Wednesday. Assorting clothing till very tired. Find so little time for correspondence. Feel so tired I cannot write
if I had time, except so stupidly friends would not have interest in reading such letters.

Thursday. Atlantic in at last with heavy mail. A few came on 4th and more promised. Wish friends would be more
generous. If they could know what a restorer is a letter, wouldn't they write ? Mr. & Mrs. Forbes, Mr. and Mrs. Eustis and
Willie dined with us. Wrote S. P. C. [Salmon P. Chase?] about the brutal attack of Col. Nobles on Mr. Pierce.

9th May Friday. Begin to like Miss T. [Towne?], think she will wear well. She takes care of Philadelphia Clothing
by their request.

Saturday. Will have a few return letters for Atlantic. Mr. and Mrs. Forbes expect to go and Mr. Eustis talks of going.
Very sorry to lose Mr. Eustis. Believe him to be nobly and truly interested in solution of the great Industrial problem of
free labor. He is unpopular with the laborers within his jurisdiction, but I have full faith in his earnest purposes and efforts
in their behalf. That he is laboring for their elevation and general improvement.

11th May Sunday. Great excitement! 68 Captfain] Stevens brings order from Gen[eral] Hunter that all colored men
between 18 and 45 capable of bearing arms shall be taken to Hilton Head no explanation. What can it mean? Are these
men contrary to all American usages U. S. usages rather, to be impressed against will to military service? I am filled with
amazement, indignation and sorrow. I am called upon, as superintendent of this plantation, to select the persons coming
within Gen[eral] Hunter's requisition. How can I do it? Blinded by tears that will not be kept back, I write the names almost
as signing their death warrants. The saddest duty I ever performed. If I could but speak to them before hand, I would
prepare them, if possible, for any duty, but this is not permitted.

12 May Monday. Rose early and sought to be prepared for the trials in waiting. Capt[ain] Stevens last night brought a
company of armed soldiers and paraded before our door previous to distribution over the Island. The negroes became
alarmed.  They feared the return of secesh, and, as some of the house servants knew we were invited by Mr. Forbes to
go to Hilton Head in his yacht, they were half afraid of our deserting them as their masters had done; that the Hilton
Head excursion was but a pretext for escape. They watched the creek all night for fear of attack, poor creatures, what
could they have done against the attack they feared!

Early after breakfast Capt[ain] Stevens came with his soldiers to demand the men. I asked to be permitted to speak to
them, when assembled, before he should give them his order. He did not give consent but ordered the soldiers to load
their guns in the very faces of the assembled men and then told them Gen[eral] Hunter had ordered them to Hilton
Head, at the same moment ordering soldiers to fire on any one attempting to disobey the order of Gen[eral] Hunter. I
could keep silent no longer and, stepping down from the porch to where the negroes stood, I assured them I knew no
more than themselves about Gen[eral] Hunter's order, but believed him to be their friend and that no harm would be
done them ; conjured them to go willingly and be obedient to every command. I promised to take good care of their
families in their absence. One whispered that his wife was in "family way" would I see after her? I gladly promised and
giving each a plug of tobacco left them.

I do not think Capt[ain] Stevens meant to be so stern as he seemed. He is but a boy and extremely diffident and in no
sympathy with our work here for the negroes. He said, when I besought him to be kind to the men so strangely and
cruelly ordered to Hilton Head, "Yes, poor devils Before I do such dirty work again I will resign." Poor Captain, you do not
see the "dirty work" from my standpoint but we will not here stop to discuss. The men were called from the field and thus
hurried off without time for coat or shoes or a good bye to their families. The women stood near by, crying, though half
assured by my presence in their midst, that nothing wrong would be done. The school house scene was one of great
excitement, Captain] Stevens drew up with his men to the negro quarters. Negroes quite unprepared, had no one to give
them confidence. Women wept and children screamed as men were torn from their embrace. This is a sad day
throughout these Islands. What does it portend? Mr. Pierce has gone to Hilton Head to see Gen[eral] Hunter about it. A
new experience for our country! Never before have free men been compelled to bear arms. Shall it be suffered ? Let us
wait the explanation. Did not go on excursion with Mr. F[orbes] ; needed at home to encourage the people and had no
heart for the excursion that in the distance looked so bright and promised so much.

I3th May. Return of Mr. Pierce. Genferal] Hunter says he will compel none of the negroes to join the army. Will send
back, with free papers all who do not wish to remain. All right, General, go on.

Col[onel] Reynolds has sent for "tickets" issued by his employee Suydam, and says he will never pay money instead of
those tickets for picking the cotton. Sits the wind so? I am glad I spoke the word for justice and right against oppression
even though I angered the oppressor. Let me ever find strength to do right. About the 23d April these "tickets" were
issued in part payment for cotton picking. The objection to them was that they were "good" only at stores kept by cotton
agents whose prices for all articles nearly doubled Beauford prices, which are not considered very cheap, to say the
least. By my oath of allegiance, I promised to do all in my power to promote the best good of the negroes and I shall be
false to my oath if I did not seek to prevent such extortion.

14th May Wednesday. Assorting clothing all day, very tired, and retire early.

15th. Drove to the Baptist church and gathered moss from those grand old oaks that overhang church and graveyard.
The superb magnolia is in bloom; I gathered one by the roadside and it scents the air all around. How I wish Maria could
see one of these trees full with its magnificent white flowers 6 inches in diameter and so purely white like the Cornus
which is never out of flower. The ride did me good and I returned ready to go on with my day's duties. Found Col[onel]
Reynolds and Suydam. Col[onel] very graciously offered the Flora to take us to Edisto, also offered to examine Whitings
trade with negroes. Said Secretary] Chase told him complaints had been made of unjust charges. He knew nothing
about any such but would enquire and if possible would have money returned. All over pay at Whiting's store should be
refunded. Would I receive it and return to negroes? I said Mr. Whiting could better do it as he only knew what sales on
account had been made having made them all himself. Colonel argued that, inasmuch as Whiting's store and our store
house had been broken into and robbed of a good deal of clothing it was only a "fair return" if the negroes upon this
plantation had been charged such exorbitant prices. Inasmuch as there was no proof or even suspicion that our
laborers committed the theft I did not consider his argument very strong.

16 May Friday. Busy packing boxes as usual. Will hurry them off because cotton house has been twice broken open and
I do not think clothing very safe there.

17th May Saturday. Gen[eral] Saxton 70 not yet arrived yet a letter from Secretary Chase received 6th May informed me
that the Port Royal contrabands and plantations had been put into his charge. Anxious to see him and decide whether
he will wish me to remain and whether I wish to do so. Am greatly interested in these people and it is a gratification to me
to hear them urge me to stay. Do they need me? Can I be useful? I am not quite sure of either and therefore hesitate.
Mr. French came to pass the night here and preach tomorrow. He says he spoke with the Secretary at Washington
about me and he, Mr. French, advised my remaining and so does the present agent, Mr. Pierce. Will not decide till I see
General Saxton.

18th May Sunday. Mr. French preached but I did not go to church. Went to the Quarters and read to the old and infirm
who could not go to church.

19th Monday. Packed boxes and assorted clothing. Find but little time to visit and talk to the women, but do it as often as
I can. They must give their houses and yards again a thorough cleaning to keep off fever and pestilence.

20 Tuesday. Mr. Zachos came with boat and oarsmen to take us to Paris Island, his home. A 2 hours run from here.
Found it a charming location, near the Bay and only 6 miles from Hilton Head. Glad to look upon our good War ships
once more. There they stand to guard Port Royal entrance and no Secesh will dare venture into the jaws of such
monsters. Some negroes have come in with a gun boat (Planter) from Charleston, which they very admirably managed
to steal from their masters and bring over with their families from Charleston. Boat prized at some 60.000 dollars. It is
thought the negroes will have the prize money. Hope they will. Spent 3 hours with Mr. Zachos and Mr. EHery, dined, and
ways and means were provided to take us home. Mr. Pierce and Mr. Eustis had saddle horses. An old open wagon very
insecure was attached by means of ropes etc. to an old horse, which Miss Towne offered to drive if I would venture. We
seated ourselves but no room being left for Zachos we took leave of him. A negro boy clung behind the wagon to open
gates and be ready in case of breakdown, which was confidently anticipated by Zachos, but as he had nothing better for
us we were willing to try his best. Thus we set forth and Miss T[owne] took the lines while I took the whip, which had very
short handle and very long lash. My first effort broke the stick which was only a dead tree branch. After this accident I
tried in vain to use the lash. Sesesh horse knew it and would not budge out of a walk. For 3 miles we travelled over
cotton fields and blackberry beds acres of deliciously large ripe fruit tempted but not once did we stop because our out
riders were impatient and galloped on before us, most ungallant, indeed. Arrived at last at Fuller's plantation; we
found a crowd of ragged women and naked children awaiting us and a set of oarsmen and boat ready to take us home.
Two hours row against the tide brought us at sunset to our home. A day of pleasure to me though no shark would show
himself in the creek or alligator upon bank and we saw no moccasin or rattlesnake in wood or reed field or marshy
Island. I had my kerchief filled with eggs which the women brought as gifts to us. This is their fashion wherever we go
they insist on giving one or more nice fresh eggs. I always regret it if I do not take thread, needles etc. to return gift for
gift, though they refuse pay for their eggs.

21st May Wednesday. Visit from my old friend Wm. Dennis in command of Coast Survey schooner. Haven't met for 7
years, very glad to see my Washington friend.

22 May Thursday. Drove to Phrogmore. Brother Joseph's classmate, Mr. Soule, superintendent. Saw Jane and found
her house looking nice as herself. Came home laden with eggs.

23 Friday. Col[onel] Cunningham, Paymaster on Wabash came to pass the night with his friend Mr. Pierce. Is South
Carolinian and born in Charleston. Our waiting woman, Rhina, says her father was coachman to his father. Col[onel]
very agreeable, is friend of Charles Sumner's. Gave me card and offered civilities cordially, but I fear his offer to take us
to Charleston when sesesh is driven out, and secure for us the best house, will hardly be accepted. Can I wonder that,
though loyal to our flag, he should feel tenderly toward his birth-place and childhood's home?

24 Saturday. Sent off last box, packed for some days and in this waiting time have tried to do up several long neglected
things, writing, etc.

25 Sunday. Easterly storm, cold and seems like New England. I enjoy it immensely, will quite set me up. Went to church
but so few the regular service was omitted. Except Welles no one there but those our carriage took along, Mrs. H.  and
myself, coachman and 6 hangers on.

26 May. Cool and cloudy wanted to go to Beauford but Mr. P[ierce] so disagreeable about the horses I would not accept
them. . . .

27 Tuesday. Think so seriously of leaving that I had pen in hand last night to ask Gen[eral] Benham to secure stateroom
for me on next steamer. Will not remain here if Whitings stay. Drove to Hazles in morning found neglected houses and
cotton agent goods at exhorbitant prices. 3^ yds calico for $1.50, coarse shirting % wide 16 cts yd. Drove to Churches in
the evening but did not much enjoy ride too crowded will not go again unless object more tempting.

28 Wed. Sewing all day and teaching Jane; she can read easy lesson, write a little and add simple numbers. She is a
disagreeable child and I keep her only with hope of being useful to her.

29 Thursday. Mr. Ruggles came with barrel of molasses and we distributed a quart to each family adding extra pint for
several children. Very amusing to watch the children stealing a lick at the stopper. A pleasant frolic. The people glad
always to get "swetnin" ; have had so little since sesesh left. Mail in with letters from Sec. Chase for me and one of
introduction to Gen. Saxton a nice letter and may decide me to stay if Whiting leaves the Oaks. Should not be willing to
see him continue his abominations with no one to protest. . . .

30 Friday. Distributed salt to the negroes about a quart to a family.

Sat. 31. Distributed salt to each family instead of drive to Jenkins' plantation.

Sunday 1st June. Probably my last Sunday at St. Helena. Went to church. Rev. Mr. Horton, Baptist, preached about
Jacob's well that was cut in solid rock. Wesley says "cleanliness is next to godliness". Mr. Horton enforced external and
internal application of water. Spoke well. Special agent Pierce made a short address and people said goodbyes, etc.
Quite affecting. I sat by window, from which a beautiful picture attracted my admiration. A magnificent live oak extended
its wide-spreading branches with long grey pendants of moss, as if to embrace the sacred graveyard and hold it in its
deep shade, impenetrable to the burning sunbeams glancing around. White marble monuments dotted here and there,
beautifully contrasting with the living shining green all around. A delicate black iron railing protected the hallowed spot.
In the background, amid the luxuriance of summer foliage, stood a horse whose outlines occasionally revealed through
the waning foliage, lent life to the scene. On the other side and nearer, stood a saddle only the animal almost invisible
among the thick foliage. The grey moss like death banners floating in the breeze seemed fit hanging for this
consecrated spot. In front of the grave yard fence a group of God's images cut in ebony, reclined carelessly but
artistically grouped. The Great Master must have arranged them. Girls, and young mothers with infants in arms, arrayed
in Sunday finery, some in white, some in pink and scarlet, sat among the tall green grass, with handsome black and
yellow profile or full face defined upon the white obelisk or lighted by contrast as head rested against the shaft. Ivory
teeth told in this tableaux vivant, and merry voices born on breeze, sometimes higher than the preachers, gave
evidence of joy in this Sunday holiday, such as the Old World peasantry find in what in our land is too much called "The
Sabbath" with accompanying restrictions. Why should they not be happy? If they came to worship in church, they found
it filled full and running over, and very naturally the young people sat down together in the shade for a little innocent rest
and gossip. Doubtless some amusing relation of week a day's experience might have elicited the laugh, which I enjoyed
while I missed nothing the preacher said.

Monday 2d June. Ericsson in with a small mail. Saxton ordered to Harper's Ferry to re-inforce Banks. Will not come
here at all, as special agent thinks. I do not like this and consult my oracle, Mr. Eustis. Ask him to advise me as a friend,
shall I go or stay? I have some personal annoyances that make me desirous to be out of present surroundings, still I
would bear with all manner of disagreeables if the consciousness of great usefulness sustained me. I do not mention
annoyances but ask what are Mr. Eustis's views of the good of women here in existing circumstances.

Mr. Eustis says he has made his home for years in this region and he thinks the summer heat will prevent any exertion.
Women, instead of doing anything will themselves be a care. Since the port has become free, by removal of the
blockade, notwithstanding the stringent circular per Treasury Department, St. Helena will be subject to marauders from
trading vessels. There is no protection and no power to give it. The troops are needed elsewhere and it is not probable
that Government will keep sufficient force to guard the Island from depredators, who will come to forage. Even if soldiers
should be stationed there, would not their influences be a dread and terror? The presence of two or three women would
be no restraint for Beauford, with all its protection, has become subject to all manner of evil influences flowing from the
presence of encamped soldiers. This is one phase. The question of possibility of remaining is another. Mr. Eustis thinks
the health question will decide the ladies to leave St. Helena for some more healthful locality, Beauford or the village.
The former is for me impossible and I do not wish an idle July and August at the desolate village. I should die of ennui.
What then? Go north and see how things are in the autumn.

I am not prepared to accept this as my life work doubt my vocation for. it and do not feel a drawing toward it unless
I can have such position and power as will justify my undertaking something beyond present duties. I do not wish to take
the responsibility of the Clothing Department. I do not feel that I should satisfactorily fill the post of teacher, which I hold
to be of first importance. There are duties I will not mention that I consider important and which, in all candor, I might
undertake under different circumstances. Do not think I shall, but, nous verrons. I would not stand in the way of
usefulness, perhaps far greater than I can render and so I will withdraw from certain conditions I am not willing to accept.
I was unwise in accepting any responsibility in coming here and I will not continue to act against my better judgment.

Tuesday 3d June. Ask Mr. Pierce to secure State-room and passage north.

Wednesday. Decided at last "with mingled emotions of pleasure and pain" as the mourning spouse said when
announcing the death of her husband.

Thursday 5th June. Hurried to Beauford because Ericsson reported to sail to day or tomorrow and passengers must be
ready. Dr. Peck and daughter and Miss Needham going. Advised to stay at Dr. Peck's till the steamer sails. Hate to
intrude but hat can I do? They kindly say stay but gentlemen must be disturbed if I do. Brought no mattress and find
none for me. Mr. Judd kindly procures one and I have sheets with me and army blanket. Will try to find candlestick and
Miss Peck will spare me a wash basin. Begin life anew after having gradually established certain necessaries at St.
Helena. Wonderful land this of the chivalry. Shall I ever leave it? I cannot again go through a parting scene so will not
return to St. Helena, though Mr. Hooper came to say my room is all in order and urge my return to remain till Steamer

Friday. Still no steamer. Ericsson ordered to Key West instead of returning north. Will wait with all patience with the

Friday evening, 10 o'clock. Is all well? Somewhat doubtfully I retire.

Headquarters, Gen. Benham.
At 8 A. M. Mr. Judd 74 and Provost Marshal called . . . A few moments after signal lights were exchanged between
Beauford and . . . [blank] immediately the long . . . [blank] sounded alarm of an attack and in a few more
moments the orderly rushed in saying rebels were in Beauford. Nothing remained for us but escape. I went to my room
and made clean toilette and packed trunk and valise for flight. This done I learned that we were safe till morning and was
advised to retire and sleep till morning in security. I tried in vain to sleep for all night was hurrying to and fro and
riding with hot haste. The steamer Potomac came along opposite my window to receive provision and ammunition and
guns for our troops at Store. Early morning found me early prepared for what might be in waiting. A messenger came to
say the ladies must go on board Potomac for Hilton Head, where they would be safe, and the men must all repair to the
Arsenal for arms and prepare to defend Beauford. Already 3000 rebels had landed on Ladies Island ! A wagon drew up
to receive trunks and baggage generally and 3 minutes given for all to be on board. We hastily weighed anchor and off
steaming and blowing in the bright sunshine with thermometer 79! An hour- brought us to the view of our grand
protection ship Wabash, where gallant Commander Dupont promises us safety if within range of his guns. A few
moments more and we are at Hilton Head where we find orders from General] Hunter to proceed to his Head Quarters
and wait till a place of safety can be found for us. Trunks and boxes are hurried off for Potomac must return to
Beaufort with troops to re-enforce our braves left there. I came to Gen. Benham's head quarters by courtesy of his aid
Captain Ely, and because the Gen[eral] is my old friend. At his table I now write these

[Here the Journal abruptly ends.]
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