San Antonio Texas
History Timeline
Early Exploration and Development
Before 1500 -- Prior to the arrival of the first European explorers, numerous tribes of the Indians of Texas occupied the
region between the Rio Grande to the south and the Red River to the north.

1536 -- Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca explores Texas.

1659 -- Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe was established in the El Paso area.

24 May 1690 -- The first San Francisco de los Tejas Mission founded in eastern Texas near Weches.

13 June 1691 -- a group of Spanish explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Native American settlement on
the feast day of St. Anthony of Padua, and Father Damian Massanet or Governor Domingo Teran de los Rios (1691-
1692) named the place and river "San Antonio" in his honor. This was the end of the Native American name of
Yanaguana.

1692- 1697 -- Gregorio de Salinas Varona, Governor of Texas

1698-1702 -- Francisco Cuerbo y Valdez, Governor of Texas

1703-1705 -- Mathias de Aguirre, Governor of Texas

1704 -- Mission of San Jose moved to its present site.

1705-1708 -- Martin de Alarcon, Governor of Texas

1708-1712 -- Simon Padilla y Cordova, Governor of Texas

1712-1714 -- Pedro Fermin de Echevers y Subisa, Governor of Texas

1714-1716 -- Juan Valdez, Governor of Texas

1716-1719 -- Martin de Alarcon, Governor of Texas

1716-1789 -- Throughout the 18th century, Spain established Catholic missions in Texas, and along with the missions,
the towns of San Antonio, Goliad and Nacogdoches.

3 July 1716 -- the second Nuestro Padre San Francisco de los Tejas founded near Alto.

17 July 1716 -- Mission Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion de Acuna founded in eastern Texas. Moved to its
present location in 1731.

11 July 1716 -- Mission San Juan Capistrano founded in eastern Texas. (originally San Jose de los Nazonis) Moved to
its present location in 1731.

1716 -- Mission San Francisco de los Neches founded in eastern Texas. Moved to the San Antonio River in 1731.

1 May 1718 -- Father Antonio Olivares founds the Mission San Antonio de Valero. Its named in honor of Saint Anthony
de Padua and the Spanish viceroy, the Duke of Valero. This date is used as the founding of the City of San Antonio.

5 May 1718 -- Governor Don Martin de Alarcon establishes the Presidio San Antonio de Bejar at the headwaters of the
San Antonio river and San Pedro Creek.

1719-1722 -- Joseph de Azlor, Governor of Texas

June 1719 -- Mission San Antonio de Valero moved to second site near present St. Joseph Catholic Church.

23 Febraury 1720 Founding ceremonies at the Mission San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo. Father Antonio Margil de
Jesus a Franciscan missionary was placed in charge.

1722-1727 -- Fernando Perez de Almazan, Governor of Texas

1722 -- the Marquis de San Miguel de Aguayo, Governor of Coahuila and Tejas orders the original site to be
abandoned and the presidio was reestablished at its current location - Plaza de Armes.

1724 -- Construction began on The Mission San Antonio de Valero (The Alamo) at current site.

1727 -1730 -- Melchor de Media Villa y Azcona, Governor of Texas

1729 -- King of Spain gave land grant establishing the city of San Antonio de Bexar...first city in Spanish Tejas.

1731 -- 15 families from the Canary Islands arrive to begin the settlement that would become San Antonio.

5 March 1731 -- Mission of Concepcion moved to its present site on the San Antonio River.

5 March 1731 -- San Juan Mission moved to present site and reanmed San Juan Capistrano.

5 March 1731 -- San Francisco de la Espada moved to the San Antonio River

1 August 1731 - 1732 Juan Leal Goraz the first Alcalde (Spanish magistrate who had both judicial and administrative
functions. The office of Alcalde would continue from 1731 through 1836.

27 August 1731 -- first baptism of the parish of San Fernando administered by Father Ignacio Antonio Ciprian.

1733 -- Antonio de los Santos - Alcaide

1734-1736 -- Manuel de Sandoval, Governor of Texas

1734 -- Manuel de Niz - Alcaide

1734 -- Spanish governor's Palace is built

1735 -- Juan Leal Goraz - Alcaide

1736-1737 -- Carols Benites Franquis de Luga, Governor of Texas

1736 -- Antonio de los Santos - Alcaide

1736 -- First bride across San Antonio River is built connecting the San Antonio de Valero mission with the town.

1737 -- Juan Curbelo - Alcaide

1737-1741 -- Prudencio de Orobio y Basterra, Governor of Texas

1738 --Ignacio Lorenzo de Armas - Alcaide

11 March 1738 -- cornerstone of church of San Fernando laid.

1739 -- Juan Curbelo - Alcaide

1740 -- Juan Delgado - Alcaide

1741 -- Antonio Rodriguez Mederos - Alcaide

1741-1743 -- Tomas Felipe Wintuisen, Governor of Texas

1742 -- Patricio Rodriguez - Alcaide

1743 -- Antonio Sosa - Alcaide

1743-1744 -- Justo Boneo y Morales, Governor of Texas

1744 -- Alberto Lopez Aguado y Villafuerte - Alcaide

1744-1748 -- Francisco Garcia Larios, Governor of Texas

1745 -- Juan Joseph Montes de Oca - Alcaide

30 June 1745 -- Mission Indians of San Antonio de Valero save Bexar from attacking Apaches.

1746 -- Joseph Curbelo - Alcaide

1747 -- Mateo Perez - Alcaide

1748 -- Juan Joseph Padron - Alcaide

1748-1751 -- Pedro del Barrio Junco y Espriella, Governor of Texas

1749 -- Joseph Leal - Alcaide

6 November 1749 -- Church of San Fernando completed.

1750 -- Juan Joseph Padron - Alcaide

1751 -- Joseph Curbelo - Alcaide

1751-1759 Jacinto de Barrios y Jauregui, Governor of Texas

1752 - 53 -- Luis Antonio Menchaca - Alcaide

2 December 1752 -- Father Miguel Nunez de Haro missionary of San Jose Mission during its first 32 years died.

1754 -- Joseph Curbelo - Alcaide

1755 -- Luis Antonio Menchaca - Alcaide

1755 -- Convento of Mission San Jose y Miguel de Aguayo completed.

8 December 1755 -- The stone church of Mission Concepcion was completed and dedicated.

1756 -- Alberto Lopez Aguado y Villafuerte - Alcaide

1756 -- Second stone church at the Alamo started but not completed during Mission period.

1756 -- Small stone church completed at San Francisco de la Espada.

1757 -- Joseph Curbelo - Alcaide

1758 -- Juan Joseph Flores de Abrego - Alcaide

1759 - 1760 -- Martin Lorenzo de Armas - Alcaide

1759-1766 Angel Martos y Navarrete, Governor of Texas

1761 -- Alberto Lopez Aguado y Villafuerte - Alcaide

1762 -- Juan Joseph Flore - Alcaide

1762 -- Father Simon Hierro Reports on the seven Zacatercan missions including: San Jose de Aguayo, Espirtu Santo,
El Rosario, La Luz del OPrcoquisac, Guadalupe de los Nocagdoches, Dolores de los Ais, and San Miguel de los Adaes.

1763 -- Luis Antonio Menchaca - Alcaide

1764 -- Francisco Delgado - Alcaide

April - 1764 -- Ignacio Lorenzo de Armas - Alcaide

1765 -- Bernabe de Carbajal - Alcaide

1766 -- Domingo Delgado - Alcaide

1767 -- Miguel Gortari - Alcaide

1767-1770 -- Hugo Oconor, Governor of Texas

1768 -- Jacinto Delgado - Alcaide

19 March 1768 Governor Oconor and Father Solis liad the first stones of San Jose's new church (the present restored
building).

1769 -- Francisco Flores de Abrego - Alcaide

1770 -- Simon de Arocha - Alcaide

1770-1778 -- Baron de Ripperda, Governor of Texas

1771 -- Joseph Phelix Menchaca - Alcaide

1772 - 1773 -- Domingo Delgado - Alcaide

1773 -- San Antonio becomes a Zacatecan mission.

1773 -- San Antonio de Bexar is named provincial capital.

1774 -- Joaquin Menchaca - Alcaide

1775 -- Amador Delgado - Alcaide

1776 -- Vincente Alvarez Traviesco - Alcaide

1777 -- Manuel Delgado - Alcaide

1778 -- Joseph Phelix Menchaca - Alcaide

1778-1786 -- Domingo Cabello, Governor of Texas

1779 -- Francisco Flores de Abrego - Alcaide

1780 -- Thoribio de la Fuente Fernandez - Alcaide

1781 --  Francisco Flores de Abrego - Alcaide

30 September 1781-- Father Pedro Ramirez builder of the San Jose stone church died and was buried in the sacristy.

1782 -- Juan Joseph de la Santa - Alcaide

1782 --  Church of Mission San Jose y Miguel de Aguayo completed.

1783 -- Manuel Delgado - Alcaide

1784 -- Francisco Javier Rodriquez - Alcaide

1785 -- Salvador Rodriguez - Alcaide

1786 -- Juan Joseph de la Santa - Alcaide

1786 -- Bernardo Bonavia, Governor of Texas

1786 - 1790 -- Rafel Martinez Pacheco, Governor of Texas

1787 -- Simon de Arocha - Alcaide

1788 -- Joseph Phelix Menchaca - Alcaide

1789 - 1790  -- Ignacio Calvillo - Alcaide

1789 -- Schoolmaster Don Jose Francisco de la Mata petitions the cabildo (town council) of San Fernando de Béxar for
a stipend .

1790 - 1798 -- Manuel Munoz, Governor of Texas

1791 -- Francisco de Arocha - Alcaide

1792 -- Vincente Ferrer Enriques de Amador - Alcaide

1793 -- Manuel de Arocha - Alcaide

12 April 1793 -- Mission San Antonio is completely secularized and suppressed.

1793 --  the four other missions at San Antonio become partially secularized and lands distributed to remaining Indian
residents.

1794 -- Ramon de las Fuentes - Alcaide

1795 -- Joseph Phelix Menchaca - Alcaide

1796 -- Salvador Rodriguez - Alcaide

1797 -- Joseph Roberto Nunez - Alcaide

1798 -- Manuel de Arocha - Alcaide

1798 - 1800 -- Jose Irigoyen, Governor of Texas

1799 -- Juan Joseph de la Garza - Alcaide

1800 -- Manuel Delgado - Alcaide

1800-1805 -- Juan Bautista de Elguezabel, Governor of Texas

1801 -- Manuel Maria Barrera - Alcaide

1801 -- The Second Flying Company of San Carlos de Parras is stationed at the former mission and it becomes the
Pueblo de San Jose y Santiago del Alamo in honor of the soldiers hometown of Alamo de Parras, Coahuila.

1802 -- Jose Antonio Saucedo - Alcaide

1802 -- Governor Juan Bautista Elguezabal orders compulsory school attendance for children under the age of twelve.

1803 -- Joseph Phelix Menchaca - Alcaide

1803 -- On January 20th, the town council provisionally accepts José Francisco Ruiz for the position of teacher, with the
understanding that he will hold the school in his residence

1804 -- Tomas de Arocha - Alcaide

1805 -- Ignacio Perez - Alcaide

1805-1808 -- Antonio Cordero y Bustamante, Governor of Texas

1806 - May 1807 -- Jose Antonio Saucedo - Alcaide

1806-1814 -- The convento of the former Mission San Antonio de Valero  is used as a hospital.

May 1807 -- Angel Navarro - Alcaide

1808 -- Ignacio Perez - Alcaide

1808 - 1813 -- Manuel Maria de Salcedo, Governor of Texas

1809 -- Manuel Delgado - Alcaide

1810 -- Gaspar Flores - Alcaide

1810 -- Mexican Revolution begins

21 January 1811 -- Juan Bautista de las Casas, a retired militia captain from Nuevo Santander led a group of army
sergeants to stage a coup in San Antonio de Bexar. The following morning they arrested Salcedo and his entire military
staff. Las Casas chained Salcedo, Simon Herrerra, the governor of Nuevo Santander who was living in San Antonio, and
twelve other Spanish officers and humiliated them in front of the town. The prisoners were then transferred to Monclova
in Coahuila

January/February 1811 -- Gaspar Flores - Alcaide

February 1811 -- Francisco Travieso - Alcaide

1811 -- The junta established by the counter-revolution against Juan Bautista Casas in San Antonio presents Don
Bicente Travieso with 855 pesos for purposes of building a schoolhouse; however an inventory of said schoolhouse
shows it to be in poor condition and containing only a small number of the items Travieso claimed to have purchased.  
The code of rules for the new schoolhouse stipulates places for 70 students in two classes, taught by a single instructor
paid 30 pesos per month.

May 1811 -- Las Casas's head was shipped to San Antonio and displayed on a pole in the military plaza

1811 -- town of San Fernando raised to rank of city.

11 September 1811 -- Salcedo returned to San Antonio

1812 -- Clemente Delgado - Alcaide

January/October 1813 -- Jose Antonio de la Garza - Alcaide

March 1813 -- Revolutionary army of Bernardo Gutierrez had its headquarters at Mission Concepcion. Revolutionary
army captures San Antonio; San Antonio is retaken by the Royalists. Manuel María de Salcedo y Quiroga, the Spanish
governor, was executed by the rebels.

October 1813 - 1814 -- Jose Antonio Saucedo - Alcaide

1814-1817-- Cristobal Dominguez, Governor of Texas

1815 -- Jose Maria Zambrano - Alcaide

1816 -- Domingo Bustillos - Alcaide

1817 -- Francisco Flores - Alcaide  

1817 -- Manuel Pardo, Governor of Texas

1817-1822 -- Antonio Martinez, Governor of Texas

1818 -- Jose Maria Zambrano - Alcaide

1819 -- Francisco Montes de Oca - Alcaide

1819 -- Major flood of the San Antonio River destroys must of the town.

1819 -- Services no longer held at the church of Mission Concepcion.

January/July 24 1820 -- Francisco Flores - Alcaide

1820 -- Don Ygnacio Villa Señor is appointed commissioner, with the responsibility of looking after “the good order and
management of the school

1820 -- Moses Austin petitions governor for permission to colonize Texas.

1820 -- San Francisco de Espada had a primary school.

July 25/ December 1820 -- Jose Erasmo Seguin - Alcaide

Republican Government of Mexico
1821 -- Jose Angel Navarro - Alcaide

1821 - With the signing of the Treaty of Cordoba, Mexico is free from Spanish control after 300 years as a Spanish
colony and 11 years of revolution.

1822 -- Jose Maria Salianas - Alcaide

1822 -- Father Refugio de la Garza of the San Fernando church was sent as a delegate to the first Congress of Mexico.

1823 -- Manuel Ytturri Castillo - Alcaide

3 January 1823 -- Stephen F. Austin received a grant from the Mexican government and began colonization in the
region of the Brazos River.

1824 -- Gaspar Flores - Alcaide

29 February 1824 - Mission San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo ceases as a mission. Father Diaz turned church property
over to Chaplain Maynes and mission Indians.

Mid-1824 -- The Constitution of 1824 gave Mexico a republican form of government. It failed, however, to define the
rights of the states within the republic, including Texas.

1825 -- Juan Martin de Veramendi - Alcaide

1825 -- U. S. colonists buy land and settle in Texas.

1826 -- Juan Jose Zambrano - Alcaide

1826 -- A city ordinance describes curriculum including reading, arithmetic, grammar, catechism, and good moral and
political behavior.  

1827 -- Jose Maria Salinas - Alcaide

1828 -- Juan Martin de Veramendi - Alcaide

1828 -- Church of San Fernando damaged by fire.

1829 -- Gaspar Flores - Alcaide

1829 -- In an effort to educate the maximum number of students with limited state resources, Coahuila and Texas adopt
the Lancastrian System in which one teacher instructs up to 150 students with the help of a few student-assistants.  San
Antonio’s town charter from this time details how the school day should be spent, including curriculum, evalution-
methods, and seating arrangements; however, it is unclear whether or how many schools were actually in operation

1830 -- Miguel Arciniega - Alcaide

6 April 1830--Relations between the Texans and Mexico reached a new low when Mexico forbid further emigration into
Texas by settlers from the United States. 1830 In response to Mier y Teran's report, the Mexican government enacts
the Law of April 6th. This law prohibits the immigration of any more Americans into Texas, places taxes on goods coming
into Texas from the U.S., prohibits slaves from entering Texas from the U.S., and deploys Mexican troops for permanent
duty station in Texas.

1831 -- Jose Maria Salinas - Alcaide

1832 -- Jose Antonio de la Garza - Alcaide

26 June 1832--
In June, Anglo-American settlers rebel against the Bustamente government and its violations of the Mexican Constitution
of 1824. They adopt the Turtle Bayou Resolutions, pledging support for the constitution and urge all Texians to support
the patriots fighting under Santa Anna to defeat military despotism. June 26 - The Battle of Velasco resulted in the first
casualties in Texas' relations with Mexico. After several days of fighting, the Mexicans under Domingo de Ugartechea
were forced to surrender for lack of ammunition.

1832-1833 -- The Convention of 1832 and the Convention of 1833 in Texas were triggered by growing dissatisfaction
among the settlements with the policies of the government in Mexico City.

1833 -- Miguel Arciniega - Alcaide

April 1833 - 1833 Texians convene in April in San Felipe de Austin for the Convention of 1833. Delegates write a state
constitution for Texas and send Stephen F. Austin to Mexico City with a petition for statehood. Their countrymen elect
Santa Anna as the Federalist president of Mexico.

1834 -- Juan Nepomuceno Seguin - Alcaide

January 1834 -- Stephen F. Austin is arrested and imprisoned in Mexico City. Though accused of trying to incite
insurrection in Texas, no charges are made against him, no court will accept jurisdiction of his case, and he
remains a prisoner, shifting from prison to prison, from January until December 1834, when he is released on bond.

1834 -- Santa Anna becomes dictator of Mexico, replacing the Federalist government with a Centralist government and
disregards the Constitution of 1824.

1835 -- Jose Angel Navarro - Alcaide

Texas Revolution and the Republic
2 October 1835 -- Texans repulsed a detachment of Mexican cavalry at the Battle of Gonzales. The revolution began.

28 October  1835 --  Texian forces led by Stephen F. Austin advance to San Antonio where General Martín Cos and
750 Mexican soldiers occupy the city. A small group of 90 Texians, led by Jim Bowie and James Fannin, scout for a
defensive location, settling on Mission Concepcion. Cos surprises the scouts, but the Texians drive off the Mexicans,
thus beginning the siege of Bexar. Jim Bowie, James Fannin and 90 Texans defeated 450 Mexicans at the Battle of
Concepcion, near San Antonio.

3 November 1835 -- The Consultation met to consider options for more autonomous rule for Texas. A document known
as the Organic Law outlined the organization and functions of a new Provisional Government.

26 November 1835 --  This is  the second engagement in the siege of Bexar. Texians camping outside of San Antonio
skirmish with Mexican cavalry forces accompanying a supply train. The Grass Fight near San Antonio was won by the
Texans under Jim Bowie and Ed Burleson. Instead of silver, however, the Texans gained a worthless bounty of grass.

Dec 5-9, 1835 -- Three hundred Texian volunteers storm Bexar and conquer over 1000 Mexican troops holding the
town. The fighting is house to house. This ends the first major campaign of the Texas Revolution.

11 December 1835 -- Mexicans under General Martin Perfecto de Cos surrendered San Antonio to the Texans following
the Siege of Bexar. Ben Milam was killed during the extended siege.

Jan/Feb 1836 -- Francisco Antonio Ruiz - Alcaide

24 Feb 1836 -- Santa Anna arrives in Bexar and the siege of the Alamo begins. The next day, Col. William Barret Travis
assumes command of the Alamo and writes a letter to the people of Texas declaring "Victory or Death."

April 6/Dec 1836 -- Jose Maria Salinas - Alcaide

1 March 1836 --The Fourth Convention is held at Washington-on-the-Brazos. It will declare independence, write a
constitution for the new Republic, and elect an ad-interim government that controls Texas until regular elections can be
held in the fall.

2 March 1836 -- The Texas Declaration of Independence was signed by members of the Convention of 1836. An ad
interim government was formed for the newly created Republic of Texas.

6 March 1836 -- Texans under Col. William B. Travis were overwhelmed by the Mexican army of 1800 troops after a two-
week siege at the Battle of the Alamo in San Antonio. The battle that lasts only ninety minutes. A handful of
women, children and slaves are the only survivors.The Runaway Scrape began.

21 April 1836 -- Texans under Sam Houston routed the Mexican forces of Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto. Thus,
independence was won in one of the most decisive battles in history.

19 September 1837 -- John W. Smith, Mayor

9 March 1838 -- Wm. H. Daingerfield, Mayor

20 July, 1838 -- Antonio Menchaca (Pro Tem) Mayor

1839 -- J.H. Winchell proposes to the City Council that he be permitted to open a school (Corner).

8 January, 1839 -- S. A. Maverick, Mayor

1840 -- Father John M. Odin begins repairs of San Fernando church and Father Michael Calvo appointed pastor.

8 January, 1840 -- John W. Smith, Mayor

19 March 1840 -- Peace talks between the Comanche and the Texas government turn into a fight at the Council House
in San Antonio. During the fight 35 Comanche are killed, as are 7 Texans.

1841 -- Alamo returned to the Catholic Church by act of the Texas Legislature.

9 January, 1841 -- Juan N. Seguin, Mayor - Messanger from the Alamo, Comander of the Company A 2nd Regiment at
the battle of San Jacinto,  Captain of a Texas force in Karnes campaign against hostile Commanche Indians, texas
Senator; he was forced out of office at gunpoint. He would later return to San Antonio with the Mexican army under
Adrian wolf and would serve under Santa Anna in the Mexican-American War.

18 August, 1841 - September 7, 1841 -- Francis Gilbeau (Pro Tem) Mayor

18 April 1842 -- John W. Smith, Mayor

5 March 1842 --A Mexican force of over 500 men under Rafael Vasquez invaded Texas for the first time since the
revolution. They briefly occupied San Antonio, but soon headed back to the Rio Grande.

11 September 1842 -- San Antonio was again captured, this time by 1400 Mexican troops under Adrian Woll. Again the
Mexicans retreated, but this time with prisoners.

30 March, 1844 -- Edward Dwyer, Mayor

Statehood and Beyond
29 December 1845 -- U. S. President James Polk followed through on a campaign platform promising to annex Texas,
and signed legislation making Texas the 28th state of the United States.

1 January, 1846 -- Bryan Callaghan, Mayor

25 April 1846 -- The Mexican-American War ignited as a result of disputes over claims to Texas boundaries. The
outcome of the war fixed Texas' southern boundary at the Rio Grande River.

9 May 1846 -- General Zachary Taylor defeats Mexican troops in Texas at Resaca de la Palma.

1 January, 1847 -- Charles F. King, Mayor

27 January, 1847 -- S. S. Smith, Mayor

18 April 1847 ---General Winfield Scott and Santa Anna battle at Sierra Gorda. The American victors capture Santa
Anna's wooden leg.

1 January, 1848 -- Charles F. King, Mayor

2 Feb 1848 -- The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed, ending the Mexican War. This treaty established Texas'
southern boundary at the Rio Grande.

3 April 1848 -- S. S. Smith, Mayor

1849 -- San Antonio was named headquarters of the United States Army Eighth Military District

1 January 1849 -- J. M. Devine, Mayor

1850 -- The Quartermaster Corps of the U. S. Army completes the building of the stone church of the former mission
and uses it as a wharehouse.

1851 -- Seven sisters of the Order of Saint Ursula arrive in San Antonio to establish a school for girls on Augusta
Street.  Several of the Ursuline Academy’s early buildings are designed by Francois P. Giraud (Miller)  Its clientele is
drawn primarily from the daughters of the Tejano upper class

1 January, 1851 -- J. S. McDonald, Mayor

1852 -- Marianists from France arrive in San Antonio and begin organizing two primary schools—St. Mary’s Institute
(later University) and San Fernando Cathedral School (Wood).

1 January, 1852 -- C. F. King, Mayor

1853 -- One free public schools is established for boys and one for girls (Heusinger).

1853 -- City of San Antonio founded the East Side Cemetery one plot donated to the Federal government creating the
San Antonio National Cemetery.

1 January 1853 -- J. M. Devine, Mayor

1 January 1854 -- John M. Carolan, Mayor

1855 - 1911 -- Mission of Concepcion was in care of the Brothers of Mary of St. Mary's College in San Antonio.

1855 -- The City’s first Board of Education is established (Heusinger).

1855 -- First San Antonio brewery established. William A. Menger and Charles Degen open the Western Brewery next to
the Alamo. The beer, fermented and stored in cold tunnels below the Menger Hotel (established in 1858), sells for 50
cents a gallon.

1 January, 1855 -- James R. Sweet, Mayor

1 January, 1856 -- J. M. Devine, Mayor

5 June, 1857 -- J. H. Beck (Pro Tem) Mayor

1 July, 1857 -- A. A. Lockwood, Mayor

1858 -- German immigrants open the German-English School in the Kleeper Hotel on West Commerce Street between
Navarro and St. Mary’s streets.  Its charter stipulates that “the German and the English language would have equal
status and instruction in all other subjects would be distributed as evenly between them as was praticiable”(Blanton 36).
The curriculum is based on the gymnasium system used in Germany, including English and German grammar, history,
arithmetic, geography, natural history, physics, singing, drawing, physical education, and swimming.  The following year,
the school moves to its permanent location on South Alamo Street.

1859 -- The San Antonio Arsenal was founded in 1859 to furnish arms and munitions to the frontier forts in Texas.

1859 -- Menger Hotel opens.

1 January, 1859 -- James R. Sweet, Mayor

The Confederate State of Texas
1861 Confederate troops take San Antonio army fort and control of the city.

1 February 1861 -- Texas seceded from the Federal Union following a 171 to 6 vote by the Secession Convention.

18 February 1861 -- Surrender of General Twiggs to the Texan troops in the gran plaza.

2 March 1861 -- Texas secedes from the United States.

22 October 1861 -- Advance units of the newly formed Brigade of General H. H. Sibley marched westward from San
Antonio to claim New Mexico and the American southwest for the Confederacy.

26 May, 1862 -- S. A. Maverick

10 August 1862 -- Battle of Nueces

1 January, 1863 -- P. L. Buquor, Mayor

1 January, 1865 -- J. H. Lyons, Mayor

13 May 1865 -- Battle of Palmito ranch, Brownsville Texas, last land battle of the Civil War

2 June 1865 -- Surrender of the Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederacy at Galveston.

19 June 1865 -- General Gordon Granger commander of U. S. Troops in texas arrives in Galveston and orders the
enforcement of the Emancipation Proclamation.

1865 - At the end of the war the U. s. Army retakes the city

9 October, 1865 -- Daniel Cleveland, Mayor

Reconstruction
1866 -- During Reconstruction, the Freedman’s Bureau sponsors Lincoln School, housed at the Colored Methodist
Episcopal Church.

24 August, 1866 -- J. H. Lyons, Mayor

8 November, 1867 -- W. C. A. Thielepape, Mayor

1868 -- Cornerstone for St. Joseph's Catholic Church laid. St. Joseph's was created for German Catholics.

27 September -- cornerstone of new San Fernando church laid.

10 December, 1868 - North wall of San Jose Mission collapses.

30 March, 1870 -- The United States Congress readmitted Texas into the Union. Reconstruction continued, however, for
another four years.

1871 -- The public school system opens Rincon School for African American .

13 March 1872 -- S. G. Newton, Mayor

13 November 1872 -- F. Giraud, Mayor

6 October 1873 -- San Fernando church completed.

27 August 1874 Diocese of San Antonio created with San Fernando as its cathedral.

2  September 1874 -- Anthony Dominic Pellicer 's appointment as the first Bishop of San Antonio was made public

25 December 1874 -- dome and roof of San Jose Mission collapses.

1875 -- Democratic governor Richard Coke supports provisions in the 1875 state Constitution stipulating racially-
separate schools controlled by local districts

In this year, the city employs fourteen teachers: 3 teachers in the 1st Ward in the school at South Flores and Gilbeau
Streets; 2 teachers in the 2nd Ward in the school on Soledad Street; 3 teachers in the 3rd Ward in the school in St.
Mary’s Hall; 2 teachers in the 4th Ward in the school on Lavaca and Matagorda Streets; and 4 teachers in the school for
African Americans on Rincon Street.

19 January, 1875 -- James H. French, Mayor

1877 -- The railroad extends to San Antonio.

1877 -- San Antonio establishes water works.

1878 -- Mule-powered streetcars are introduced downtown.

1879 -- The City of San Antonio opens an all-white high school

18 February 1881 -- John Claude Neraz appointed Bishop of San Antonio.

1882 -- Telephones and electrict lights are introduced to the City.

1 February 1885 -- Bryan V. Callaghan, Mayor

1886 -- Geronimo and Apaches imprisoned at Fort Sam Houston.

1888 -- Margaret Mary Healy Murphy of Ireland had purchased a lot on the East Side in 1877 with the intent of
establishing a school for African American students and in 1888 the school was completed and named St. Peter Claver
Colored Mission—the first Catholic school for African Americans in the San Antonio Archdiocese

1889 -- In response to demans from the African American community for a high school, George Brackenridge donates
additional funds, equipment, and supplies necessary in order to add secondary instruction and industrial classes to the
curriculum at the Rincon School

1890 --President Benjamin Harrison named Ft. Houston the post for General Sam Houston.

1890 -- Electric streetcars replace mules.

6 December, 1892 -- A. I. Lockwood (Pro Tem) Mayor

27 February, 1893 -- George Paschal, Mayor

7 September, 1894 -- Henry Elmendorf, Mayor

27 August, 1895 -- John anthony Forest Appointed Bishop of San Antonio

22 February, 1897 -- Bryan V. Callaghan, Jr. Mayor

1898 -- The Sisters of Divine Providence establish Our Lady of the Lake Academy (later College) on April 21st

1898 -- The Episcopal Church establishes a school at St. Philip’s Mission for African Americans, with an enrollment of 13
students

April - May 1898 -- Rough Riders camp at Riverside Park (Roosevelt Park)

23 February, 1988 -- Marshall Hicks, Mayor

Progressive Era
1900 -- Incarnate Word Academy (later College, then University) is established near Brackenridge Park by the Sisters of
Charity of the Incarnate Word as a Catholic college for women.

1902 Claretian Fathers placed in charge of cathedral.

13 January, 1903 -- Frederick Terrell (Pro Tem), Mayor

26 February, 1903 -- John S. Campbell, Mayor

1905 -- The Daughters of the Republic of Texas assume the care of the Alamo as a Texas State Park or Historic Site.

1 June 1905 -- Bryan V. Callaghan, Jr, Mayor

31 Jan 1909 -- San Juan Mission church repaired and church was reblessed.

2 March 1910 -- 1st Lt. Benjamin Foulois launched a Wright Brothers “Aeroplane” into the air from a wooden take-off
ramp at the Fort Sam Houston Parade Field.

11 March 1911 John William shaw succeded as Bishop of San Antonio.

10 July, 1912 -- William L. Richter (Pro Tem), Mayor

18 August, 1912 -- A. H. Jones, Mayor

1913 -- The Christian Women’s Board of Missions founds the Mexican Christian Institute and Director of Missionary work
Samuel G. Inman and minister Hugh McLellen establish a school for neighborhood children within the institute.

8 April 1913 -- Albert Steves (Pro Tem), Mayor

1 June, 1913 -- Clinton G. Brown, Mayor

World War I
1917 -- Camp Bullis established in San Antonio as a training site for the American Expeditionary Force. It was used as a
small arms and rifle range with no troops stationed in the camp. Later it would be used by the Civilian Military Training
Corps, the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Reserve Officer Training Corps.

1917 -- Kelly Field named for Lt. James Kelly the first military airman killed in a crash was founded.

1917 -- Brooks field opened, named after Cadet Sidney Johnson Brooks killed in a training accident in 1911 at Fort Sam
Houston.

1 June, 1917 -- Sam C. Bell, Mayor

1918 -- The state legislature adds criminal penalties for violations of its English-only legislation

18 July, 1918 -- Arthur Jerome Drossaerts appointed Bishop of San Antonio

1919 -- The building of St. John Seminary at Mission Concepcion.

1921 -- Downtown is flooded: 50 people killed.

1 June 1921 -- O. B. Black, Mayor

1923 -- St. Mary’s Institute fully separates its high school and college campuses, with the college program located on the
St. Louis campus, which had been established in West Heights in 1894 and reformulated as St. Mary’s University

1 June, 1923 -- John W. Tobin

1923-1956 -- Redemptorist Fathers of San Antonio had care of San Juan mission church.

1923-1956 -- Redemptorist Fathers of San Antonio take care of San Francisco de la Espada.

3 August 1926 Diocese of San Antonio raised to the rank of archdiocese. Arthur Jerome Drossaerts becomes
Archbishop.

14 November 1927 -- Phil Wright, (Pro Tem) Mayor

3 December 1927 -- C. M. Chambers, Mayor

The Great Depression
1929 -- City of San Antonio purchases the "Spanish Governor's Property."

1930 -- "Spanish Governor's Property" opens as a museum.

1930 -- Randolph Field opens.

25 October 1931  -- Franciscans return to the Mission of San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo.

13 March 1933 -- C. K. Quinn, Mayor

1934 -- La Liga Pro Defensa Escolar is founded “to promote the improvement of education in San Antonio’s Spanish-
speaking community”.

1934 -- The LULAC Committee on Public School Buildings and Recreational Facilities issues a report on San Antonio
schooling of Mexican-American children, with a particular focus on the West Side.  They discover  that only 56% of
school age Mexican American children are enrolled in public schools.  Those who are enrolled experience poorer
facilities and greater crowding than Anglo students.  Although numerical enrollment for Anglos and Mexican Americans is
roughly equal—a little over 12,000 students each—28 schools with 368 rooms and a total of 82 acres of recreational
land serve Anglo communities, while only 11 schools with 269 rooms and a mere 23 recreational acres serve Mexican
American communities.

1936 -- first River Parade is staged to honor the Texas Centennial.

18 April 1937 -- The restored church of San Jose rededicated.

1938 -- Brooke Army Medical Center built in Fort Sam Houston

1 June 1939 -- Maury Maverick, Mayor

1941 The River Walk completed.

21 January 1941 -- Robert Emmet Lucey appointed Archbishop of San Antonio

8 May 1941 -- San Jose Mission dedicated as a National Historic Site (earlier in 1941 it was declared a State Historic Site.

1 June 1941 -- C. K. Quin, Mayor

World War II
1942 -- Trinity University of Waxahachie moves to the city and merges with the University of San Antonio as Trinity
University

8 January, 1943 -- Gus B. Mauerman, Mayor

Camp Bullis used for the 2nd, 95th, and 88th Infantry Division.

Post World War II
1948 -- Gus Garcia serves as lead attorney in Delgado vs. Bastrop I.S.D., in which a Texas  school district is found guilty
of illegal discrimination by segregating Mexican-American children

1949 -- San Antonio Municipal Airport opens.

1 June 1949 -- Alfred Callaghan, Mayor

6 March 1952 -- Sam Bell Steves, Mayor

1 May 1953 -- A. C. (Jack) White, Mayor

1954 -- San Antonio is one of the first school districts to desegregate following the U.S. Supreme Court decision in
Brown v. Board of Education

9 September 1954 -- R. L. Lester, Mayor

21 October 1954 -- R. N. White, Sr., Mayor

1 May, 1955 -- J. Edwin Kuykendall, Mayor

1960 -- The world premiere of The Alamo, starring John Wayne, takes place at Woodlawn Theater.

1 May, 1961 -- Walter W. McAllister, Mayor

1963 -- Walls and interior of the San Juan church was begun.

1965 -- The Espada Aqueduct designated a National Historic Landmark.

1966 -- The Alamo is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

1967 -- Franciscans at reside at Espada resumed the care of San Juan Capistrano.

1968 -- HemisFair '68 is held.

1969 --Following the passage of the National Bilingual Education Act in 1967, Texas de-criminalizes bilingual education
(Blanton).

21 May, 1969 -- Francis James Furey appointed Archbishop of San Antonio

1970 --The Cisneros v. Corpus Christi ISD court case extends the 1954 Supreme Court decision that abolished
segregation of African American students to preclude segregation of Mexican Americans as well (San Miguel).  

1971 -- Incarnate Word College (previously a women’s college) becomes coed

1 May, 1971 -- John Gatti, Mayor

1973 --The state legislature passes the Bilingual Education and Training Act, mandating bilingual instruction in public
elementary schools in which twenty or more students have limited English skills (Blanton).  

1 May, 1973 -- Charles L. Becker, Mayor

1 May, 1975 -- Lila Cockrell, Mayor

1977 -- Camp Bullis was the site of the Air Force Security Police Training Site.

23 August, 1979 -- Patrick Fernandez Flores appointed Archbishop of San Antonio

1 May, 1981 -- Henry G. Cisneros, Mayor

1987 -- Pope John Paul II celebrates Mass in San Antonio.

1988 -- SeaWorld of Texas opens.

1 June 1989 -- Lila Cockrell, Mayor

1 June 1991 -- Nelson W. Wolff, Mayor

1992 -- Fiesta Texas opens.

1993 -- The Alamodome opens

1993 -- Henry Cisneros appointed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development by President Bill Clinton.

1 June 1995 -- William E. "Bill" Thornton, Mayor

1 June 1997 -- Howard W. Peak, Mayor

1 June 2001 -- Edward D. Garza, Mayor

29 December, 2004 -- Jose Horacio Gomez Velasco appointed Archbishop of San Antonio

17 June 2005 -- Phil Hardberger, Mayor

1 June 2009 -- Julian Castro - Mayor

26 May, 2010 -- Oscar Cantu appointed Apostolic Administrator of San Antonio

14 October, 2010 -- Gustavo Garcia-Siller appointed Archbishop of San Antonio
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